1. Tendency to view everything in relationship to oneself.
  2. Thinking about thinking in order to make thinking better.
    Critical thinking
  3. Critical thinking involves __________ one's own thinking.
    analyzing, evaluating, and improving
  4. Not a bad habit of thought.
    Reasoning from assumptions that are not one's own.
  5. In thinking through a problem, the critical thinker does NOT
    gather information that supports his/her presuppositions
  6. Another term for critical thinking
    Second-order thinking
  7. Hiding or distorting evidence is a tendency of what kind of thinking?
    Weak-sense thinking
  8. In the classroom, critical thinking shifts the premium from ______ of thought to ________of thought.
    speed / depth
  9. Bringing an unbiased perspective to all relevant viewpoints exemplifies which of the following?
  10. The ability to reconstruct others' viewpoints exemplifies this.
    intellectual empathy
  11. To admit flaws in one's own thinking is an expression of what?
    intellectual humility
  12. The opposite of intellectual conformity is...
    intellectual autonomy
  13. Represents the second stage of critical thinking development
    Challenged Thinker
  14. Evaluates the extent to which life's events are either positive or negative
  15. All reasoning has a purpose, seeks to settle some question, is based on assumptions, occurs from some point of view, is based on information, is shaped by concepts, contains inferences by and gives meaning to information, and has implications and conseque
    Guidelines for using Intellectual Standards
  16. Being near to the true value or meaning of something
  17. What logically follows from reasoning
  18. A logical process of drawing conclusions
  19. Being unambiguous and easily understood
  20. General categories or ideas by which we interpret or classify information used in our thinking
  21. The goal or objective of reasoning
  22. Unstated or hidden beliefs that support our explicit reasoning
  23. The elements of reasoning are also known as the...
    parts of thinking and fundamental structures of thought
  24. Occurs whenever the mind draws conclusions based on reasons.
  25. Which elements of reasoning are operative when we think through a problem?
    All eight elements of reasoning
  26. Goal or desired outcome of our reasoning.
  27. We take for granted as true in our reasoning.
  28. What follows from our reasoning?
  29. Examples of concepts
  30. In reasoning, we make __________ based on __________.
    inferences / assumptions
  31. Distinctions between the elements of reasoning.
  32. Memorizing information without understanding.
    Inert information
  33. Mentally taking in and actively using false information
    Activated ignorance
  34. Three kinds of implications that may be involved in any situation.
    Possible, probable, and necessary
  35. Thinking that is easily understood reflects which intellectual standard?
  36. Reasoning that is specific, exact and sufficiently detailed.
  37. A question with one correct answer.
    Question of fact
  38. A question with many possible subjective answers.
    Question of preference
  39. A question with competing and debatable answers.
    Question of judgment
  40. In analyzing causation, looking for a single shared factor.
    Common factor method
  41. In analyzing causation, looking for a causal factor that is present in one situation but absent in another, similar situation
    Single difference method
  42. In analyzing causation, looking for a pattern of variation between a possible cause and a possible effect
    Concomittant variation
  43. In analyzing causation, successively ruling out non-causal factors until one correct causal factor remains
    Process of elimination
  44. A systemic, disciplined approach to asking questions aimed at assessing truth
    Socratic questioning
  45. These questions have more than one answer, with some answers better than others.
    Questions of judgment
  46. Do you like watching ice hockey or basketball?
    Question of preference
  47. Questions that have only one answer.
    Questions of fact
  48. Paul and Elder counsel that you take problems and decisions ...
    One-by-one, not merging them together
  49. In analyzing causation, looking for a causal factor that is present in one situation,but absent in another, similar situation is called the...
    single difference method
  50. A scientist discovered that all laboratory hamsters that had been eating lettuce developed Salmonella poisoning. This is an example of causation by:
    common factor
  51. A mechanic ruled out failures in 10 different engine parts before finding the problem in the carburator. This is an example of
    process of elimination
  52. In strategic thinking, recognizing when your thinking is irrational or flawed is which component?
  53. In strategic thinking, engaging and challenging your own thinking is which component?
    Intellectual action
  54. To analyze the logic of an article, one can apply..
    elements of reasoning
  55. Reasoning can only be as sound as the _______ it is based on.
  56. Actively using information that is false, although we mistakenly think it is true is an example of...
    Activated ignorance
  57. A common problem with applying the critial thinking standard of clarity to information is...
    the information isn't clear
  58. The implicit believe that support our explicit reasoning about something.
  59. Critical thinking experts call an unsupported claim...
    an opinion
  60. Key factor in tracing the origins of information.
  61. Paul ad Elder argue that ________, not Uncritical Persons, know how to manipulate
    Skilled Manipulators
  62. Citing majority sentiment or popular opinion as the reason for supporting a claim
    appeal to popularity
  63. Dismissing an argument by attacking the person who offers it rather than by refuting its reasoning
    ad hominem fallacy
  64. Plausible alternative explanation for why something happened.
    Rival cause
  65. Understanding, monitoring, employing, developing, and embracing
    Characteristics of an Advanced Thinker
  66. The belief that one's own thinking or life is superior to others.
  67. The belief thta one's own society or group is superior to others.
  68. Principles for correct human behavior acknowledged by reasonable people.
    Universal ethical standards
  69. Remembering only that evidence and information that supports our thinking.
    Egocentric memory
  70. Overgeneralizing so that immediate event, whether favorable or unfavorable, influence thinking.
    Egocentric immediacy
  71. Feeling superior because of possessing the "Truth"
    Egocentric righteousness
  72. Ignorning inconsistencies between belief and behavior and between public standards and private actions
    Egocentric hypocrisy
  73. Adopting an overly narrow point of view and thinking in absolutes
    Egocentric myopia
  74. An effective approach to correcting egocentric myopia.
    consider points of views that conflict with ours
  75. Another term for egocentric thinking.
    rigidity of thought
  76. An example of the logic of egocentric thinking aplied to point of view.
    I don't really care what anyone thinks, I deserve to be rewarded and that's the way it is.
  77. Ignorning complexity and embracing a version of reality that conforms to our existing views, values, and beliefs.
    Egocentric oversimplification
  78. Paul and Elder argue that we ...
    pick and choose our ethical principles subjectively.
  79. Paul and Elder believe that ethical principles common to all humans can be found here.
    Universal Declaration of Human Rights
  80. Advanced thinkers are unlikely to make decisions by...
  81. Involves developing the tools of critical thinking and applying them to current and future challenges.
    Deep learning
  82. Doesn't produce lasting knowledge or comprehension.
    Shallow learning
  83. When is the optimal time for a learner to apply the Elements of Reasoning to the logic of a subject?
    Before the learner has begun his /her course of study
  84. Higher order thinking does NOT contribute to the gap, if anything it would act to narrow it.
  85. The science of collecting, organizing, and analyzing quantitative data
  86. The average derived by adding up all the values and dividing the sum by the total number of values
  87. The average represented by the middle value in a series of values
  88. A graph that plots the relationship between 2 or more variables by using connected data points
    Line graph
  89. The total or aggregate of something, expressed as a number without relationship to other numbers
    Absolute number
  90. Incorrect or erroneous information
  91. A study sample that is representative of the whole population
    Random sample
  92. The value that appears most requently in a series of values
  93. The gap between the smallest and largest values in a series of values
    Statistical range
  94. The frequency with which each value in a series of values occurs
    Statistical distribution
  95. Which of the following graphical forms is well suited to summarizing tiem series data?
    Line graph
  96. It is impossible to interpret the significance of a percentage without knowing the ________ on which it is based.
    Absolute numbers
  97. Which report of risk reduction conveys a more significant treatment effect?
  98. Purposes; questions; assumptions' implications' information; concepts; inferences; points of view
    Element of critical thinking
  99. Reasoning always takes place within this
    Point of view
Card Set
Critical Learning Course