Define psychopathology and discuss some of the issues
related to labeling behavior as “abnormal.”
Psychopathology- the scientific study of the origins, symptoms, and development of psycholoical disorders.
- "crazy"behavior is very different from "normal" behavior
- behaviors that is different to us is easy to label as crazy.
Define a psychological disorder, and discuss the
development and role of DSM-IV-TR in classifying psychological disorders.
- a pattern of behavioral and psychological symptoms that causes significant personal distress, imparis the ability to function in one or more important areas of daily life, or both.
DSM-IV-TR categoies: anxiety disordres, mood disorders, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders, and schizophrenia.
Discuss the key findings of the National Comorbidity
Survey, including the prevalence of psychological disorders and gender differences in the incidence of specific disorders
Describe the main symptom of the anxiety disorders,
and differentiate between pathological anxiety and normal anxiety.
physical arousal and feelings of tension apprehesion and worry.
- differences is:
Identify the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder
GAD- global persistent chronic and excessive apprehension. (tense and anxious and anxiety is pervasive.
panic disorder: heart pounding, rapid breathing, breathlessness choking sensation, sweat tremble, chills.... variable and queite unpredictiable.
Describe agoraphobia and social phobia
agoraphobia: fear of panic attacks in public places
social phobia: fear of social situations.
Discuss how the different learning theories account for the development of phobias
- classical conditioning- little albert
- biologically prepared- snake and spiders.
List the main symptoms and causes of posttraumatic
stress disorder (PTSD), and the factors that influence the likelihood of developing PTSD.
- frequently recalls events
- avoids stimuli or situations
- increased physical arousal
exposed to extreme physical or psychoogical trauma.
- -people with a personal or family history of psychological disorders are more likely to develop PTSD when exposed to an extreme trauma.
- -the madnitude of the trauma plays an important role. -undergo umltiple traumas.
Describe the main symptoms of obsessive-compulsive
checking things over and over.
Discuss the range of symptoms that characterize major
depression, noting how major depression differs from dysthymic disorder
physical restlessness, nervousness, fidgeting or aimless pacing.
dysthymic disorder is less intense.cases of the blues for years.
Define bipolar disorder and cyclothymic disorder, identify the symptoms of each, and discuss the prevalence and course of bipolar disorder
- bipoloar disorder- involving perods of incapacitating depression alternating with periods of extreme euphoria and excitement.
- symptoms: mood swings. manic: excited for days, believe that he has plans for wealth, power, and fame, talks super fast, can disappear for weeks.
- Cyclothymic disorder- a mood disorder characterized by moderate but frequent mood swings that are not severe enough to qualifty as bipolar disorder.
- symptoms: mood swings for two years or longer. not as severe, extremely mood, unpredictable and inconsistent.
- Prebalence and course of bipolar:
- onset usually in young adulthood.
- mood changes more abrupt than in major depression
- no sex differences rate
- commonly recurs every few years
- controlled by meds (lithium)
Discuss the role of genetic predisposition, brain chemistry, and stressful life events in the development of mood disorders
Describe the symptoms and characteristics of paranoid
personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder
- paranoid personality disorder: doesn't trust anyone. think they are after them.
- antisocial personality disorder: no conscience, manipulative, chaming, and destructive.
- borderline personality disorder: Fear of abandonment. lack of identity.
Describe the symptoms and possible causes of dissociative identity disorder (DID), and explain the controversy surrounding its diagnosis and reports of its
- extensive memory disruption along with the presence of two or more distinct identities.
- because of childhood abuse.
- symptoms: amnesia and memory problems.
- multiple personality disorder.
Define schizophrenia, distinguishing between positive
and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
schizophrenia: ability to function is impaired by severely distorted beliefs, perceptions, and thought processes.
positive: hallucinations, disorganized, delusions or false beliefs. (audio most severe) added
negative: flat affect, alogia, avolition (most severe) taken
Describe the different types of schizophrenia, discuss
the prevalence of schizophrenia, and identify variations in the course of the disease.
- Paranoid: believe others are after them like aliens, or gvt.
- Catatonic: wax flexibilty.
- Disorganized: delusions with little meaning. emotions don't make sense.
- Undifferentiated: combination of positive and negative, doesnt fit with the other types.
200k every year. 1 million treated annually. 1% experience one espiode.
Genetic factors, Evnironmental factors, abnorm brain structures and chemistry(high amount of dopomine), psych factors (unhealthy families)
Summarize the evidence for the various factors thought
to be involved in the development of schizophrenia, including genetic factors, paternal age, and exposure to the influenza virus.
- genetic factors- someone in the family has it.
- paternal age- fathers age, older than 50 equals 3 times more.
- exposure to the influenza virus- infected by the flu before birth or shortly after birth.