The Origin of Species and the Descent of Man
- Ideas of ecosystem. Everything is connected. Didn’t see a problem with religion and evolution. Evolution is progress for which is a never ending process—just like humanity. You cant expect society to evolve all at once just like natural selection. Proides diversity. “Beautiful” isn’t such a scientific word, but he uses it. Why doesn’t this work in terms of what Spencer
Important to see how people started to see society. Remember things are progressing, we are not longer the same. Things happen in a chaotic way in Darin’s eyes. All nature is connected.
Struggle for life is universal • Results from geometric rate of reproduction (Malthus) • Results in destruction or increase, depending on favorability of conditions • Rate of reproduction depends more on ability to survive than on initial number of eggs/seeds • Rate slowed by destruction of old, young, seeds, shortage of food, taken as prey • Organisms and their success are interrelated: cat --> field mice --> humble bee --> heartease and red clover • Natural Selection = “survival of the fittest” • Sexual selection • Divergence and extinction
"The Lay of Tribute"
Satire of cultural debate about geologic evidence of evolution Satire of “progress” and modern concerns
“Lay” is poetic term for short historical ballad.
Form used ironically Pun in poem is multiple: trilobite “lies” in path of walker; tells us the “lay” of the land; as representative of prehistoric history, tells us our history which, seen from geological time, complicates idea of “progress.”
Heart of Darkness
- Very dream-like. Reading is jumpy. Where is the rupture of the unconscious breaking through the page? b/c these two ideas are linked to one another. Freud talks about the unconscious as the ideas and results.
- Character in book thinks that the way they live is istremely pathetic. Black man having huge muscles working hard. Faces like grotesque masks. Christian missionaries thought they’d go out and show others good and get “stuff.” They knew they were going out to take, not pretty. What is pretty is that theres something religious purposes the idea that christians want to share their beliefs with you.
Civilization and Its Discontents
Relates to Darwin because we were once primative human beings, without clothes. How do we cope with everyday problems? Model of Psychosexual Development.
Libido- (live energy) changes as we get older. As we grow up, we realize what’s right/wrong. Oral-We eat. Anal- we lear to be potty trained “control”. Phallac (genital)- that’s why babies play with___. We’re all babies. Pedipal complex-I want to kill my dad b/c he’s with my mutha! Penis Envy- Women Desire the penis she lacks.
Conscious: the active part of your mind that you are aware of • Preconscious or foreconscious: the inactive part of your mind (can easily become conscious when activated) • Unconscious: the active part of your mind that you are not aware of; can affect your actions • Repression: a device operating unconsciously to make threatening memories, feelings, or desires inaccessible to the unconscious mind • Resistance: unconscious defenseitems returning to consciousness
Johann Gottfried von Herder
Materials for the Philosophy of the History of Mankind
The Jewish State
What if you define a nation by shared customs, language and diversity? Idea that it's time->S. America, nothing comes out of it.
Jews have been made a people by the hatred of others • Therefore, give this people sovereignty somewhere, and they will make a nation • This people will make a modern nation in one of two places: – Argentina -- promising colony – Palestine -- historic home
traditional Anti-Semitism causes Jewish identity – discrimination bars Jews from many professions • forced into ﬁnance (wealth), mediocrity, or poverty (Socialism) – creates separate (non-assimilated) character • This identity + legal emancipation = modern Anti- Semitism –assimilation is not possible; dates back to middle ages. Jews therefore received as different (us vs. them) – legal emancipation creates competition with bourgeoisie • resented if move up • move down, then trouble as revolutionaries (Socialists) • Assimilation would destroy national character and not bring peace
"Dulce et Decorum est"
The big lie, war isn’t glorious. End of poem is extremely graphic. People in gas mask/uniforms all look the same.
"Women and Wages"
"The Sin of Self-Sacrifice"
- Ruling English class, not a communist, but reads Engels and Marx.
Argues that it’s bad for society if women are trapped. Society/culture can improve if everybody has a chance to improve. If we care, women need experience. Unalienated labor in Ireland->Farm work. “Black legging”- when someone takes a low-wage to undercut somebody else.
Anti-feminists: women should sacriﬁce own personalities, goals for sake of family • Women can only gain knowledge via experience of the world • This will beneﬁt their families • The problem of gender inequality is a modern problem: Modernization has decreased the value of women’s labor – women and women’s labor no longer recognized as equal – unworldliness = not able to “purify” family, prepare for/protect from capitalism • Self-Sacriﬁce weakens race, not strengthens it • Militant suffragettes see this – their methods (arson, riots, etc.) not effective – but we should admire their goals
Capitalists hire women because they are cheaper • “Women’s wages” assume women don’t support families. This is not true. • It is dishonorable to accept these lower wages – Insulting themselves – At the expense of male workers -- “blacklegging” – Sets members of working class against one another – Depresses all working wages • The feminist movement needs to consider working-class women – Women should ﬁght capitalism, not just try to make it superﬁcially more comfortable • Strike for equal wages -- don’t just accept • Unions should support women in equal pay, or women should found their own unions • Fight! Don’t accept self-sacriﬁce.
Communism and the Family
- From a wealthy family, but not aristocratic. Russion woman defined by Russian Revolution. Lays out why Government should take over child
- care. Think of Marx—Marriage is prostitution. The traditional family is over!
- Free/liberate people. Kids are an investment.
A Room of One's Own
- Dealing with stream of consciousness->constantly aware of the world around you. Human beings struggle. Men are fortunate because women
- are weak/small. Women are representation of “Ah, I am bigger/stronger! I can do
In A Room of One’s Own, Shakespeare’s sister doesn’t have the same opportunities as Shakespeare since she’s a woman. Think of Marlow and how empire works.
- If you aren’t well-educated (likely) then you might be compelled by Hitler’s argument. Linked with Darwin, but run through a garbage disposal of
- course. Hitler would think Picasso’s work resembles degenerate people.
Comic book is not an appropiate way of writing on the halocaust!
Shooting an Elephant
- Eric Blair Disagreed with imperialism. Thought what they were doing was wrong. Couldn’t say anything because he was an officer. Paradox
- because “I didn’t know what I was doing.” Why is this a problem with imperialism? B/C a lot of people didn’t ever think of taking over a country
- twice. If anything, people thought they were helping by imperializing.
- Elephant is eating grass after squashing a Bermese citizen.
- He hates killing animals, but he’s pressured into shooting the elephant. How does race/difference function in his argument? Think of women being suppressed.
"The Orient"= The East. We can't have an east without a West.
The Orient. Coincides with geographical region, but is really a system of representations. “The Orient” exists for the West, and is constructed by and in relation to the West. A mirror image of what is inferior and alien ("Other") to the West. • Orientalism. A ﬁeld of academic study that emerged in the 19th c. Gives its name to broader concept: unconscious, untouchable certainty about what the Orient is. “Experts” in the West deﬁne the Orient.
Characteristics of Orientalism – The Orient is seen as separate, eccentric, backward, silently different, sensual, and passive. – It has a tendency towards despotism and away from progress. “Penetrable” (feminine) and unstable. – Always judged in terms of, and in comparison to, the West, so it is always the Other, the conquerable, and the inferior. Belief system leads to “real” effects: political & economic policies.
The Wretched of Earth
- Psychiatrist who said we have a rationale to fight->Ourika
- Ourika comes into adulthood->Ourika comes into alienation
Explains why decolonization is always violent • Colonial world divided into two opposing zones: natives and settlers • Settlers maintain their dominance via ideology, institutions, violence • Decolonization destroys this system: “The last shall be the ﬁrst and the ﬁrst last.” (370)