Dressings and Burns

  1. Hydrocolloids
    • Consist of gel-forming polymers such as gelatin pectin or carboxymethylcelluose with a strong film or doam adhesive backing
    • Absorb exudate by swelling into a gel like mass and vary from being occlusive to semi-permeable
    • Dressing does not attach to actual wound but is anchored to intact skin surrounding the wound
    • Indications: useful for partial and full thickness wounds
    • can be used with granular or necrotic tissue
  2. Advantages and Disadvantages of Hydrocolloids
    • Advantages: porvides a moist environment for wound healing, enable autolytic debridement, offers protection from microbial contamination, provides mod absorption, does not require a secondary dressing, provides a waterproof surface
    • Disadvantages: may traumaize surrounding intact skin upon removal, may tend to roll in areas of excessive fristion, connot be used with infected wounds
  3. Hydrogels
    • Consist of varying amounts of water and gel forming material such as glycerin
    • Available in differnt forms
    • Rather than absorb drainage hydrogels are moisture retentive
    • Indications: superficial and partial thickness wounds that have min draginage (abrasions, blisters, pressure ulcers)
  4. Advantages and Disadvantages of Hydrogels
    • Advantages: Provides a moist environemtn for wound healing, Enables autolitic debridment, May reduce pressure and diminish pain, Can be used as a coupling agent for ultrasound, minimally adheres to wound
    • Disadvantages: Potential for dressing to dehydrated, can't be used with wounds with significan drainage, typically requires a secondary dressing
  5. Goals of Wound Management
    • Complications are reduced
    • Debridement of nonviable tissue
    • Risk factors for infection are reduced
    • Tissue perfusion and oxyenation are enhanced
    • Wound size is reduced
    • Wound and soft tissue healing is enhanced
    • Soft tissue swelling inflammation or restriction is reduced
  6. Types of Debridement
    • Wet dressings
    • Wet to dry dressings
    • Wet to moist dressings
    • Enzymatic debridement
    • Shpart Debridemnt
  7. Red - Yellow Black System
    • Red: pink granulation tissue, protect wound, maintain moist environment
    • Yellow: most yellow slough, debride necrotic tissue, absorb drainage
    • Black: Black thick eschar firmaly adhered, debride necrotic tissue
  8. Primary Dressing
    Comes in direct contact with the wound
  9. Secondary Dressing
    Placed directly over the primary dressing to provide protection, absorption and or occlucsion
  10. Occlucion
    Refers to the ability of a dressing to transmit moisture vapor or gases from the wound bed to the atmosphere
  11. Foam Dressing
    • Composed from hydrophillic polyurethane base
    • Dydorphillia at the wound contact surface and hydrophic on the outer surface
    • Allow exudates to be absorbed into the foam
    • Available in sheets or pads in varying thickness and can be ADHESIVE OR NONADHESIVE
    • INDICATIONS: provide protection over partial and full-thickness wounds with varying levels of exudate used as a secondary dressings over some forms of hydrogesl
  12. Transparent Film
    • This membranes made from transpartent polyurthane with awater resistanct adhesives
    • Permeable to vapor and oxygen but are mostly impermable to bacteria and water
    • Highly elastic, conform to a variety of body contours and allow easy visual inspection of the wound.
    • INDICATIONS: useful for superfical wounds or partail thickness wounds with minimal drainage
  13. Gauze
    • Manufactured from yarn or thread and are the most readliy available dressing used in an inpatient encironment
    • Come in a variety of sizes and shapes
    • Impregnated gauze is a variation of woven gauze in which various material such as petroleum, zinc or antimicrobial have been added
    • INDICATIONS: commoly used on infected and non infected wounds of any size. Dressing can be used for wet to wet, wet to mosit or wet to dry debridemnt
  14. Alginates
    • Consist of calcium salf and algenic acid that is extracted from seaweed.
    • Highly permeable and non occlusive
    • INDICATIONS: typically used on partial and full thickness draining wound such as pressure wound or venous insufficiency ulcers
    • Often used of infected wounds due to the likelihood of excussive drainage
  15. Types of Selective Debridement
    • Sharp debridement
    • Enzymatic Debridement
    • Autolytic Debridement`
  16. Types of Non selective debridement
    • Wet to dry
    • wound irrigation
    • hydrotherapy
  17. Thermal Burns
    • Caused by conduction or convection
    • examples include hot liquid fire or steam
  18. Electrical burns
    • cuases by the passage or electrical current through the body
    • typically have enterace and exit wounds
    • complications - cardiac arrhythmias, respiratory arrest, neurologicad damage
  19. Chemical Burns
    • Occurs when certain chemical come into conteact with the body
    • Reaction continues until the compound is diluted from the site
  20. Hypertrophic Scarring
    an abnormal and disorganized scar formation characterized by a raised firm scar with collagen fibers tat do not follow any patterns
  21. Normotrphic scarring
    A scar with organized formation of collagen fibers that align in the parallel fashion
  22. Z-plasty
    a surgical procedure to eliminate a scor contracture. an incision in the shape of a "z" allows the contracture to change configuration and lengthen the scar
  23. Burn Degree Classifications
    • 1st- red skin that blanches with pressure, superficial
    • 2nd - blisters form partial involvement
    • 3rd - epidermis is gone, damge in subcutaneous tissues, full tissue involvement
Card Set
Dressings and Burns