History 1 Final

  1. Visigoths
    • When: Late 300s
    • Where: modern day France
    • Who: barbarians
    • What/why: First barbarians to become a kingdom, Also first barbarians to defeat a roman army(army was lead by the roman emperor himself)
  2. Ostrogoths
    • When: aproximately 518
    • Where: modern day italy
    • Why: semi-perminant kingdom, Rome was it's head, roman empire disappears after the Ostrogoths
  3. Feudalism
    • When: 900-1100
    • Where: all across europe
    • What: (1) lord-vassal relationships; (2) a personalized government that is most effective on the local level and has relatively little separation of political functions; (3) a system of landholding consisting of the granting of fiefs(little areas of land given to vassel) in return for service and assurance of future services; (4) the existence of private armies and a code of honor in which military obligations are stressed; and (5) seignioral and manorial rights of the lord over the peasant
  4. Charlemagne/Carolingians
    • when: 768-814
    • where: Frankish Kingdom(France, Germany, Spain)
    • why: Dramatic ruler, christian leader, Roman ruler(Fused Rome, Dramatic, Christian thoughts/culture=middle age thinking) , first government to work hand in hand with the Pope
    • Readings: "Life of Charlemagne"
  5. Commercial Revolution
    • When: 1100 (12th century)
    • Who: Frankish Kingdom
    • What: the lords gain more land and more wealth as a result(of more land), Pre-cursor to monarchy, provides the abilities to construct large states, economy grows
  6. Domesday Book
    • When: 1086
    • Where: England
    • What: every property and person in England is recorded, it's like a modern day Census, counts revenue, strategy used by Administrative Kingship(established procedure, lots of rules and officals)
  7. Magna Carta
    • When: 1215
    • Where: England
    • What: Rights of the nobles that the king can't touch, signified that the nobles got to much power because the nobles made the king sign and used his own creation against him(Administrative Kingship- bound him to his own document) ((pre-cursor to our bill of rights)) Established Parliment
  8. Philip Augustus
    • When: 13 century
    • Where: France
    • Why: he builds the territory of modern day france, france land and wealth increase during this time, destories england (battle of Bouvines((first large army against large army))and france becomes most powerful in europe),
  9. Pope Gregory VII/Gregorian Reform
    • When: 1073-1085
    • Where: Germany
    • What/why: Pope VS King/emperor-who has the right to annoint bishops/who's more powerful? (Henry IV VS Gregory VII) , investiture conflict, solved by concordat of Worms, emperor loses but he is allowed to be present, effects: serpation of church and state and pope gains power, Germany king's power diminishes, german princes gain power
    • Readings: "Letters relating to Gregory VI, Henry IV, and German Bishops"
  10. Frederick Barbarossa
    • When: 1152
    • Where: Germany
    • What/why: Good at appeasing the princes and keeping them happy (balance of power between himself and the princes), fought off Henry the Lion(most powerful duke in Germany) and chased him out of germany by gaining support from other princes/nobles
    • Readings: "The Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa"
  11. Fourth Lateran Council
    • When: 1215
    • Where: Italy
    • What/why: established the papal monarchy(pope is king of church), set laws that governed the moral and religious lives of the Christians, lay people(common people/non-clergy members) can participate in religious culture/ceremonies, Concordal of Worms ends the fourth Lateran Council
    • Who: Pope Innocent III
  12. Representative Institutions
    • What/why: representation of the people in government, provide a "check" on the king(the king can't have complete control while representative institutions are around)\
    • Examples:
    • England- Parliament 1215 (established by Magna Carta)
    • Germany- Statute of favor of the German Princes(group of princes)
    • France- States General(1st state= Church, 2nd state= nobles, 3rd state= workers)
  13. Black Death
    • When: 1346(sicily) 1348(mainland Europe)
    • what/why: contributes to economic downfall of Europe, kills in 3 days and killed 1/3-1/2 of europes population, contributes to the following renaissance
    • Readings: Petrarch "Letters of Familiar Intercourse"
  14. 100 Years War
    • When: 1409-1416?(NOT actually 100 years)
    • What/Why: part of the 14 century disastors(technicallly 15th century), Joan of Arc, England VS France, wipe out both states economically and physically, established modern warfare tactics(professional armies, always around)
  15. Great Schism
    • When: 14th century
    • What/Why: many popes occured and papal monarchy falls( Philip the fair tries to arrest the pope, instead he's exiled to france, new pope established in italy((so now there is 1 in Italy and 1 in France)), bishops hold Consilorism((states bishops have more power than the pope, a third pope is instated as a result)))contributed to the following renaissance, people start to quesiton the church and it's power
  16. Michelangelo
    • When: 16th century
    • Who: Skilled artist of the renaissance
    • Works: David(1504), Pieta, Sistine Chapel(1508)
    • Why: during the time of the renaissance roman and greek culture was revived, he contributed to that
  17. Humanism
    • When: 1350-1600
    • What/why: the perfection of the human person through education, mass production of litature occured, spread of knowledge/education to all, Petrarch father of Humanism
    • Readings: Petrarch "Letters of Familiar Intercourse", Castiglione, "The Courtier"
  18. Lorenzo de Medici
    • When: 15th century/ during renaissance
    • Who: member of the Medici family (Medici Family was the head of Banking in Florence)
    • What/Why: educated in Humanism, interested in Renaissance art, very culturally and politically sauvy for his time, "The Prince" is believed to be based on him
    • Readings: Machiavelli, "The Prince"
  19. Vasca da Gama
    • When: 1498
    • Who: European Salior
    • What/Why: Sailed around the Cape of Good Hope to india and back(to europe), made Europeans rethink their positions in the world (set up for their big egos in future dates)
  20. Columbian Exchange
    • When: 16 century
    • Who: Spain Colonized in the Americas in 1508 and started the whole Columbian Exchange
    • What/Why: trade between Europe and the Americas: exchage of diseases and goods, Hernan Cortes helped the success of the Columbian Exchange
  21. Hernan Cortes
    • When: 1519
    • Who: in the name of Spain
    • What/Why: Conquered the Aztecs(with the help of disease) and opened up the Atlantic Exchange(comlumbian Exchange),
    • Side Note: Incas conquered by Francisco Pizarro
  22. Columbian Exchange
    • When: 16th century
    • Who: Europe with the the Americas (mostly spain with latin america)
    • What/Why: New set of trade routes developed, trade is now centered around the americas, exchange of diseases
    • Side Note: sets up for slave trade-which sets up for racial discrimination(it starts as a way of identification here(perviously it was mostly social status, in 1700s modern racism begins)
  23. Plantations/Plantation economy
    • When: 1630s
    • Who: mostly southern areas
    • What/Why: Large farm, worked by slave labor, produces 1 crop only; staple crop
  24. Consumer Revolution
    • When: 1600-1700
    • Who: Europe
    • What/Why: importation increases, enough money is circulating for people to purchase material goods/luxuries (ex: sugar), first time that europe escapes substantial economy/living
  25. Henry VIII
    • When: 15th century
    • Who: England, Son to Henry Tudor(Henry VII) marries a Yorks, Yorks take over during
    • War of the Roses(1455-1485)(lancasters vs Yorks, both family crests are roses)
    • What/Why: Henry VIII tames englands nobility by creating a new nobility that supports the Tudors, creates seperate officers for states filled with new proffessionally trained rather than hereditary, wanted to create a centralized state
  26. Louis XI
    • When: 15th Century
    • Where: France (which consists of parts of france, germany, and switzerland)
    • What: creates first standing army, heavy taxes
  27. Charles V
Card Set
History 1 Final
History 1 final key terms and concepts