Volume of air inhaled and exhaled during a cycle of respiration
Inspiratory Reserve Volume
Volume of air that can be inhaled above tidal volume
Expiratory Reserve Volume
Volume of air that can be exhaled below tidal volume
Volume of air remaining in the lungs after a maximum expiration and that cannot be voluntarily expelled
Volume of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inhalation (includes IRV+TV+ERV)
Functional Residual Capacity
Volume of air remaining in the lungs and airways at the end of a normal quiet exhalation
Total Lung Capacity
Total amount of air the lungs can hold (includes TV+IRV+ERV+RV)
Resting Expiratory Level
a state of equilibrium in the respiratory system
Name the primary laryngeal bones and cartilages
- thyroid, cricoid, epiglottis (unpaired)
- arytenoids, corniculates, cuneiform (paired)
- hyoid bone
What are the 5 layers of the vocal folds?
- Thyroarytenoid muscle
- Deep layer of Lamina Propria
- Intermediate layer of Lamina Propria
- Superficial layer of Lamina Propria
What is the Cover-Body Model?
The five layers of the vfolds have been classified on the basis of the differing degrees of stiffness of the layers. Cover refers to the epithelium and the superficial layer of the lamina propria. The transition or vocal ligament encompasses the intermediate layer. The body is formed by the thyroarytenoid muscle.
Describe one respiratory condition that affects breathing and resulting speech deficits.
Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurological disease characterized by a rigidity of muscles that restricts the range of movement of the affected structures. The respiratory system may be one of the first speech systems affected. The rigid chest wall movement may limit the vital capacity. PD is typically associated with speech that is monotonous, soft, breathy, weak and imprecise artic
- SuprahyoidAnt and pos digastric
- lateral cricoarytenoid
- post cricoarytenoid
Vertical phase difference
The slight time lag between the opening and closing of the inferior and superior portions of the vocal folds
Longitudinal phase difference
Timing difference between the anterior and posterior portions of the vocal folds as they open and close
Wavelike motion of the vocal folds during vibration
Which intrinsic muscles adduct the vocal folds
- lateral cricoarytenoid
Which intrinsic mucsles abduct vocal folds
Which intrinsic muscles elongate and tense vocal folds
Which intrinsic muscles is body of vocal folds
Describe what happens during phonation and the Bernoulli Principle
subglottal pressure is built up and forces vf apart, a puff of air escapes into the vocal tract, the vocal folds begin to close and form a narrow channel, air passing thru the constriction becomes neg, bern princ, when air passing thru a narrow channel inc in velocity and dec in pressure, difference in pressure above and below vf causes them to be sucked together, starting the process all over
Myoelastic-Aerodynamic Theory of Phonation
Model that describes voice production as a combination of muscle force (myo), tissue elasticity (elastic), and air pressures and flows (aerodynamic).
Phonation threshold pressure
Minimum amount of subglottal pressure required to set vocal folds into vibration
What are the characteristics of the human voice that make it a complex sound?
The vocal folds have a layered structure and varying levels of stiffness that vibrate in a complex manner. Fundamental freq and harmonics also contribute to make it a complex sound
What does the glottal spectrum represent?
a sound you would hear if you could somehow place a microphone at the larynx, before the sound travels thru the rest of the vocal tract; spectrum of the human voice
Why does someone's voice sound different, even when they have the same fund freq?
Their vocal tracts (filters) are different. Your voices sound different b/c the amplitudes of the harmonics in your voices are different
What are harmonics?
frequencies above fund in a complex periodic sound
What is harmonic spacing?
distance between harmonic freq in a complex sound
Define Jitter and Shimmer and how those values may change with age.
- Jitter-(pitch) timing variability between cycles of vibration
- Shimmer-(intensity) amplitude will vary slightly with each cycle
- Jitter- 1% or less is norm, higher may indicate aperiodic movement
- Shimmer- .5dB or less
- Children have higher jitter values than adults and elderly adults have higher values than younger adults
Know the 3 vocal registers and some general terms used to define vocal quality.
- register- range of pitches
- pulse- refers to a range of very low fund freq that creates creaky popping sound (glottal fry), vf closed for longer period of time
- falsetto- refers to very high range, vf long and stiff, not vibrate as fully, thinner
- modal- the register most commonly used in normal conversational speech
What is HNR?
harmonics-to-noise ration- measure of the proportion of harmonic sound to noise in the voice measured in decibels, quantifies the relative amount of additive noise in the voice signal, the lower the HNR the more noise that exists, used to make objective measurements to assess voice
What is EGG?
Electroglottography- method of evaluation vocal fold function noninvasively; a high freq signal of very low current is generated and passed thru 2 surface electrodes held in place w/ a velcro band at either side of the person's thyroid cartilage, the current passes from one electrode to the other when vf closed