exam 1 exam

  1. A disease that is acquired in a clinical setting is known as a
    nosocomial infection
  2. A ______ is someone who does not become sick when harboring an infectious pathogen but has the potential to transmit the infectious pathogen to others
  3. Thweability to cause disease is associated with the _____of a pathogen
  4. Microorganisms that normally colonize the skin and mucous membranes are referred to as ?
  5. A pathogen can be transmitted to a new host by...
    • Air
    • Food
    • Water
    • ARthropods
  6. IF an individual's host defense is not functioning correctly, they are considered to be... ?
  7. The outcome of a infection is primarily dependent on _______, which, when adequately activated, eradicate the pathogen.
    host defenses
  8. The chemical process that takes place inside every cell and is responsible for the production of energy is referred to as ?
  9. When a large complex molecule is breoken down into smaller moleules, ____ has occured.
  10. A pohotoautotroph is a microogranism that uses _____ as its carbon source and _____ as its energy source
    CO2, sunlight
  11. When an oxidation reaction is coupled with a reduction reaction, this is rferred to as
    a redox reaction
  12. In a chemical reaction, molecule X has gained one electron and has therefore been...
  13. The location where a substrate fits into an enzyme is known as the ..?
    active site
  14. Enzyme reactions are affected by ...
    • Temp
    • Enzyme concentration
    • Concntration of substrate
    • pH
  15. What are 4 characterisitics of glycolysis?
    • Anaerobic metabolism
    • substrate-level phsophorylation
    • Net production of 2 ATP
    • Glucose is oxidized to 2 pyruvate molecules
  16. True or false... glycolysis takes place on microbial cell membranes or on the inner membrane of the mitochondrion
  17. What are 3 characterisitics of the kreb cycle?
    • Aerobic metabolism
    • Oxidation of carbon to CO2
    • Transfer of electrions to NAD and FAD
  18. True or false, in the kreb cycle there is a direct acceptance of pyruvate, a three0carbon molecule, from glycolysis
  19. What is required to fuel anabolic reactions in cells?
  20. What is the classification for a living organism that lacks a nucleus and other membrane-bound structures?
  21. Bacteria which have a spherical or ovoid shape are called
  22. Which of the following does not include a multicellular arrangemnet seen with spherical bacteria?
  23. microscopic examination of staph aureus would reveal
    clusters of cocci
  24. Teh majority of bacteria are either__ or ___
    gram - or gram +
  25. Organisms that exploit a host's decreased resistance ot infection and cause disease are referred to as
  26. A successful infection by a pathogen requires that
    • the pathogen is able to multiply
    • the paghetn is transmissable to new hosts
  27. Teh properties a pathogen possesses that permit establishment and the evasion of host defenses are called
    virulence factors
  28. Locations where pathogens gain access to a host are fererred to as
    portals of entry
  29. Which of the following is not associated with the portal of entry referred to as the parenteral route?
  30. ___ are used by many pathogens to assist with anchoring them to host tissue
  31. A ____ is a thich layer of proteins, bacteria and matrix that coasts yoru teeth and provides a perfec environment or bacteria to expand and erode your teeth.
  32. Infectious dose 50% (ID50) refers to the number of organisms required..
    for 50% of exposed to show sigs of infection
  33. ____ made by bacteria destroys red blood cells in the host
  34. Cnnective tissue in the host is compromised by the production of _____ by bacteria
  35. Which of the following is not a characteristic of exotoxins
    highly antigenic
    cause disseminated intravascularclotting
    lethal in small doses
    causes diseminated iv clotting
  36. which of the following is not a characteristic of endotoxins
    extremely stable at high temps
    induce fever in host
    lethal in small doses
    lethal in small doses
  37. the location where infectious organisms can multiply and accumulate is referred to as the
  38. An individual who seems healthy but infects others with disease-causing paothgens is known as a
  39. Contact transmission may occur indirectly when a nonliving intermediate called a _____ is involved
  40. Which of the following is not an example of contact transmission?
    a housefly transfers pathogens from cow manure to the eye of a human
  41. Infections with ____ are especially problematic in burn patients
    pseudonomas aerigunosa
  42. The most common anatomical site for a ospital-borne infection is
    the urinary tract
  43. The number of new cases of a particular disease contracted within defined population in a specified period is referred to as the ____ of the disease
  44. the total number of ppl affected by a disease at any given time is the _____ of the disease
  45. What is he term used to describe diseases that rise sharply of a global scale?
  46. An epidemic arising from a shared, contaminated water supply is a
    common-source outbreak
  47. ____ is the term used by microbiologists to describe the underlying cause of a disease
  48. The ____of the body consists of a variety of microorganisms that case no harm to healhy hosts
    microbial flora
  49. The presenfe of bacteria in the blood is referred to as
  50. A ___ disease is one in whic symptoms reappear at a time much later than the original infection
  51. If pathogens spread to the bloodstream or lymphatics and disseminate to other parts of the boyd, a _____ occurs
    systemic infection
  52. Diseases that take a long period to develop and also remain for long periods are referred to as
  53. What are 2 characteritics of toxic shock?
    • bp decrewases
    • plamsa leaks from circualtion into tissue spaces
  54. _____ has a sudden onset and causes widespread inflammation and necrosis of tissues
    acte septic shock
  55. neutrophils release ___ when bound to m proten: firbrinogen complexes during infections wth streptococcus pyogenes
    heparin-binding protein
  56. A new virus has been identified by DNA sequencing methods in a remote location in the south pacific. Te who is very concerned because infection with this virus has a death rae of 20% of all infected individuals and no vaccine is available. This is an example of a(n)______ disease
    emerging infctious
  57. Developing nations have seen a dramatic decrease in the number of fatal infectious diseases in the 20th century, attributed mainly to the
    development of antbiotics
  58. When gene segments are rearranged between two different viral strains through a gene "shufflig" event, this is called
  59. SARS is trnsmitted by all of the following mechanisms except
    direct contact
  60. t or f... electron transport occurs in the cytoplasm
    false, it does not
  61. what do neurotoxins do?
    disrupt signal transduction in the cells of the nervous system
  62. true or false.. exotoxins make up part of the cell wall of gram positive bacteria
    false, endos do for gram neg, but not exos for gram pos
  63. Pateints with neutropenia are more susceptible to....
    bacterial and fungal infections
  64. t or f... neutropenia refers to a type of anemia in which rbc numbers are lower than usual
    false, it refers to a low wbc count
  65. Males and females are jut as likelty to acquire utis
    false, women are more likely because they have a shorter urethra
  66. AIDS is...
    an emerging infectious disease
  67. t or f.... legionaires disease is a re-emerging disease
    false, it is not
  68. What are Koch's postulates?
    • Every organism that cuases a specific disease must be the same
    • Pathogen is isolated from infected host
    • Pure pathgoen is put into different host and causes same disase
    • Pathogen is isolated again
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