ch 11.txt

  1. ´╗┐How are muscles named
    • shape
    • size
    • location
    • relative position
    • # of heads
    • Action
    • Fiber direction
  2. What happens when the muscle contracts?
    muscle fibers shorten and when they shorten tension is produced.
  3. Define Origin
    • anchor end of the muscle
    • attaches to bone that doesnt move
  4. Define insertion
    • end of the muscle that is attached to the moving structure and is pulled toward the origin.
    • Where the action happens
  5. Describe the Belly of the muscle
    actual muscle tissue located between insertion and origin where contraction happens
  6. Do longer or shorter fibers generate more force?
    longer fibers are more powerful than shorter fibers
  7. List the 6 types of fascicle arrangements
    • Parallel
    • Convergent
    • unipennate
    • bipennate
    • multipennate
    • circular
  8. Describe parallel arrangement
    • parallel to long axis of muscle. Not strongest arrangement
    • but cant get good pwr w/ longer fibers
    • more fibers adds to strength
  9. Describe convergent arrangement
    • Broad base of fibers that come together at a common attachement sight
    • example: pectoral major or minor
  10. Describe unipennate arrangement
    • fibers are short in relation to muscle length
    • fibers on one side of tendon on angle
    • example: extensor digitorum
  11. Describe bipennate arrangement
    • Fibers are short in relation to muscle length
    • fibers on both side of tendon on angle
    • looks similar to a feather
    • example: rectus femoris
  12. Describe Multipennate arrangement
    • fibers are short in relation to muscle length
    • arrangement of bipennate arrangements
    • like a bunch of feathers bound at base
    • example: deltoid
  13. Define Agonistic muscles
    muscles that work together
  14. Define prime mover
    muscle in agonistic group that does the largest share of work
  15. Define synergistic muscle
    • muscles that assist the prime mover
    • example: to flex the elbow
    • Prime mover - brachalis
    • synergist - biceps brachii
    • synergist - brachioradials
  16. Define antagonistic muscle
    • muscles having opposite actions
    • sd to oppose prime mover
  17. What should the antagonist do when the prime mover is contracting?
    nothing or relax
  18. Define lever and associate with body
    • strait rod that moves on a fixed point called the fulcrum.
    • It allows for max work for any given amount of force applied.
    • long bones act as levers
  19. Define fulcrum
    • Balance point for a lever
    • Where the action takes place
    • in body = joints
  20. Define resistance
    force opposing movement that comes from structure's weight and restrictions on structure
  21. Define effort
    • force acting to promote movement. AKA applied force
    • in body it comes from muscles
  22. Define leverage
    the mechanical advantage gained by a lever
  23. When will movement occur?
    movement occurs when applied force/effort exceeds resistance
  24. Describe 1st class lever
    • like a teeter totter - fulcrum is in middle
    • maximum range of movement and speed
    • few in body
    • ex. head nodding
  25. Describe 2nd class lever
    • like a wheel barrel - fulcrum is wheel, load in barrel and Applied force is at end of handles when lifted
    • Max power
    • few in body
    • ex. found in ankle - heel lifts
  26. Describe 3rd class lever
    • like food tongs or a hockey stick - fulcrum on one end, Applied force in middle and load on other end
    • good range of motion, power and speed
    • common lever in body
    • ex humerus and ulna/radius (elbow as fulcrum)
  27. Describe 3rd class lever
Card Set
ch 11.txt
chapter 11