How many American’s believe air quality is better than it was in 1970 when the Clean Air Act was enacted?
How many American’s believe air quality is worse than it was in 1970 when the Clean Air Act was enacted?
How many American’s believe air quality is about the same than it was in 1970 when the Clean Air Act was enacted?
Since the Clean Air Act was enact, between 1970 and 2003, how much has nitrogen oxide emissions declined?
Since the Clean Air Act was enact, between 1970 and 2003, how much has sulfer dioxide emissions declined?
Since the Clean Air Act was enact, between 1970 and 2003, how much has lead emissions declined?
Since the Clean Air Act was enact, between 1970 and 2003, how much has carbon monoxide emissions declined?
Since the Clean Air Act was enact, between 1970 and 2003, how much has volatile organic emissions declined?
Since the Clean Air Act was enact, between 1970 and 2003, how much has particulate emissions declined?
How much has the US population grown by between 1970 and 2003?
How much has overall energy consumption grown by between 1970 and 2003?
43% to 97.351 trillion btu
How much has the number of registered vehicles grown by between 1970 and 2003?
By 111% to 235 million
How much has the annual vehicle miles traveled (VMT) grown by between 1970 and 2003?
151% to 2.8 trillion miles
How much has “real” gross domestic product (gdp) grown by between 1970 and 2003?
175% to $10.381 trillion
What causes more annual deaths in America asbestos or food-borne illness?
How many people die from asbestos related deaths (asbestosis, mesothelioma, and lung cancer) annually?
~10,000 dies from diseases related to asbestos
Which cases more cancer deaths each year: nuclear radiation or the sun?
What is the incidence rate of skin cancer each year?
1.3 million cases
How many people die from melanoma each year?
In the sixty years since Hiroshima and Nagaski, how many died of cancer due to radiation?
What is responsible for a greater proportion of human cancer: alcohol consumption or environmental pollution?
According to the Harvard Center for Cancer Prevention, how much of cancer is due to alcohol?
How much of cancer is due to pollution?
How should sound scientific communicate risk?
- Size of risk
- Sources of a risk
- Possible risk management options
What are biases and heuristics that influence decisions under uncertainty?
- Anchoring and adjustment
- (these are the qualitative aspects of risk)
What is representativeness in risk assessment including cons?
- Part of qualitative decision making in the face of uncertainty
- Places likelihood of object in general class
- Cons: leads people to pay too much attention to specific details (engineer example)
- Cons 2: people are insensitive to sample size (hospital female baby births)
What is availability in risk assessment?
- Part of qualitative assessment includes:
- -Ease of recall similar events (old people and heat attacks; young people car accidents;
- - Retrievability (list of men and women if have more famous men ppl think there are more men in the list)
- - Salience – stonger memory or recent events found more available (common R as first letter or third letter in word)
What is anchoring and adjustment in risk assessment?
- - Def: ppl form quantitative judgements starting with a first value that is adjusted with supplementary info
- - Con: anchors are biased
- - Con: adjustments are too small
- - Examples: estimating UN Membership, multiplication math problems
What is the perceived risk model?
Combines familiarity and dread
Where does public outrage usually fall within the perceived risk model?
public familiarity with the threat is low and public dread of threat is high
What influences dread?
- - fatal
- - Global impact
- - Involuntary
- - Uncontrollable
- - Unfair
- - Catastrophic
- - Future generations
- - Increasing
- - Not easily reduced
What influences Familiarity?
- - observable
- - known to exposed
- - immediate effect
- - old risk
- - known to science
What are other factors in precieved risk model?
- - man made v. natural
- - children v. adults at risk
- - Untrustworthy institutions v. trustworthy institutions
- - Media focus v. neglect
- - Identifiable victims v statistical victims
- - Suppressed data v. accessible data
What is the biological basis of irrational risk perception?
- - only organisms that could recognize and respond to danger survived and evolved
- - our brain is designed for fear first and then think
What are some general rules to risk perception?
- - perception factors are like seesaws
- - several factors are usually involved; importance varies over time
- - factors are universal across cultures, ages, and gender
In risk perception, what is control and what makes people more or less afraid?
- - Control is imposed or voluntary risk factors – CHOICE
- - More afraid: driver on cell phone; nuclear waste repository – no control; air plane (physical)
- - Less afraid: using a cell phone ourselves while driving; inviting a nuclear waste repository into your town; driving a car (physical)
In risk perception, what is trust and what makes us more or less afraid?
- - the more we trust the institutions which are supposed to protect = less afraid
- - the less we trust institutions = more afraid we will be
- - More Afraid: industry (only out for own good); when govt says something is okay and then turns out not okay; closed decision making
- - Less Afraid: consumer groups; risk govt warned us about; open decision making process
In risk perception, what makes us more or less afraid in natural vs. man made events?
- - more afraid: industrial chemicals; air/water pollution; hazardous waste; technology
- - less afraid: solar radiation; organic food; herbal remedies
What lessons do quantitative decision making teach us in risk perception?
people have difficulty making judgements under uncertainty and use heuristics to help
What lessons do qualitive decision making teach us in risk perception?
- Many factors have been suggested to influence perception but prediction is difficult
Why does most risk communication fail?
- - doesn’t account for the psychological basis for perception of risk
- - refuses to accept irrational behavior is how ppl are programmed
- - has counterproductive goal of making everyone see the risk as communicator sees it
How can risk communication be more successful?
- - accept that people react emotionally
- - provide info about risk based on psychological/emotional factors
Why does risk perception matter?
- - we make decisions about risk every day
- - public views on risk influence social risk mgmt. decisions
- - real public health consequences for “risk perception gap”
What is the EPA’s influence over municipal solid waste?
- - EPA does not manage at household level
- - EPA does regulate landfills
Why is Times Beach MO important?
- - 1970s Russell Bliss hired to spray oil onto dusty roads
- - oil contained dioxin
- - EPA declares health emergency - town evac and 265,000 tons of soil burned
- - Lead to RCRA “resource conservation and recovery act”
What is RCRA and what does it regulate?
- - RCRA – Resource Conservation and recovery act
- - Solid and hazardous waste
What does RCRA exclude in its oversight?
domestic waste, fossil fuels, mining wastes, oil, and gas refining waste; hydrofracking
What is solid waste under RCRA?
- - Solid waste – any discarded material from industrial, commercial, govt, mining & agriculture
- - Includes: solid, liquid, semi-solid, or contained gaseous materials
What is hazardous waste under RCRA?
- - listed or characteristic solid waster
- - listed includes non specific sources (toluene, MEK, Etc) and specific sources (toxicity, reactive, ignitable, corrosive)
- - charactertistic: toxicity, reactive, ignitable, corrosive
- - subtitle C: “cradle to grave” tracking
What is excluded from RCRA’s hazardous waste definition?
- - domestic waste
- - fossil fuels
- - mining wastes
- - oil and gas refining waste
- - hydrofracking
What is RCRA’s Subtitle C grant authority over?
Hazardous Waste “cradle to grave” tracking
What is RCRA’s Subtitle D grant authority over?
non-hazardous wastes (municipal landfills, etc)
What is RCRA’s Subtitle F grant authority over?
fed responsibilities (waived sovereign immunity)
What is RCRA’s Subtitle I grant authority over?
underground storage tanks
What is RCRA’s Subtitle J grant authority over?
medical waste (now its Medical Waster Mgt Act)
What is the flow of products under RCRA?
- 1. Use
- 2. Recycled in Process (if recycled goes back to use)
- 3. Solid Waste
- 4. After no longer being used, becomes either hazardous or non-hazardous waste
- 5. If deemed a RCRA hazardous waste, waste must go to RCRA landfill
- 6. If deemed a RCRA non-hazardous waste, waste goes to other landfill
How is RCRA Hazardous waste tracked?
- a.manifest tracking begins with waste generators
- b.then manifest goes to waste transporter
- c. then manifest tracks treatment, stoarage, and disposal facility (TSDF)
- d. manifest with tracking to grave returns to waste generator
Who keeps hazardous waste manifests under RCRA?
Waste generator must keep manifests forever and is forever liable for payout (think Times Beach oil spraying incident)
How much hazardous waste needs to be in a barrel for it to count as HW?
How must a RCRA landfill be constructed?
- - Must have double liner with welded seams,
- - packed clay layers,
- - leachate collection
How do municipal landfills handle methane?
as waste breaks down without oxygen releaseing methane, we generally collect landfill gas and flare it or use for energy
In 1984 how many underground storage tanks were leadking?
1 million or 30% of storage tanks were leaking
In 1988 how did the law change how gas stations handle storage tanks?
- Gas stations required to have:
- - spill and overflow protection
- - corrosion protection
- - double walled tanks with leak detection btw
- - exluded home heating oil, famrs, and residential tanks
When was (CERCLA) passed?
Why was CERCLA Passed?
- because of love canal and valley of drums which were poorly managed or abandoned waste sites
What happened at Love Canal (Niagara falls)?
- - b/w 1930s-1950s Hooker Chemical dumped 21000 tons of toxic waste
- - 1953 land is sold to the city for $1
- - 1960s deed restriction reversed and 100s homes built on site
- - 1978 waste found oozing from the site
What happened at the Valley of Drums?
- -17,000 openly dumped drums were removed from 13 acres
- -1986 several barrels burned for weeks – still ignored
- -1979 EPA issues an emergency cleanup
- -1980 CERCLA legislation passed
What does CERCLA stand for?
CERCLA stands for Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act aka SUPERFUND
What does CERCLA do?
- -for abandoned or uncontrolled waste sites
- - National Priorities List (NPL) hazardous waste sites (based on health hazard ranking system)
- - 1600 NPL sites in country
- - government or responsible party mus clean up
- -very tough law (retroactive, strict, joint and several)
Under CERCLA, when are owners liable?
- If they are a past or current owner (Retroactive)
- Owners are liable regardless of the laws of the day (strict)
- Even one small waste generator can be liable for all (strict)
How many national priorities lists (NPL) or superfund sites are in VA?
30 NPL sites in VA
In 2004 how many NPL sites and how many construction completions?
- ~1500 sites in 2004
- ~800 construction completions
What was the cost recovery of the Superfund at its highest?
~325 million between 1997 – 2000
What was the cost recovery of the Superfund in 2006?
What was the Bhopal Disaster?
- Union carbide pesticide plant (now Dow Chemical)
- Worst industrial accident in history
- 42 million tons of Methyl Isocyanate (MIC) reacts with water overpressurizes
- killing 3000 immediately
How many died in Bhopal Disaster?
- 3000 immediately
- 1000s more in weeks later
- 20,000+ with long term health effects
When was the Bhopal Disaster?
Dec 3, 1984
What was the Hungarian Aluminum Plant Reservoir Dam Burst? When?
- released red sludge 700,000 cubic meters (185 million gallons)
- 4 killed
- 120+ burned
How many found guilty of Bhopal gas disaster?
What inspired the 1986 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA)?
- Created Emergency Planning and Community “Right to Know” Act (EPCRA)
- Citizens right to know about chemicals in their community
- Req emergency planning for spills and releases
- Established Toxic Release Inventory (TRI)
What is Toxic Release Inventory (TRI)
- must report all chemical releases, storage, usage, disposal (above threshold)
- publically available
What did the 1990 Pollution Prevention Act (P2) do?
Shift thinking from end of pipe to up the pip
What is most desirable in pollution?
a. source reduction
c. waste treatment
What is the least desirable in pollution?
a. source reduction
c. waste treatment
How many pounds of trash does each person toss out each day?
How much has the number of pounds of trash per day per person increased since 1970
How much of our waste is packaging material?
How much of the packaging material is paper and card board?
What region has the most landfill and how much?
Rocky Mountain and ~85%
What region incinerates the most and how much?
What region recycle the most and how much?
The west ~38%
How much does the US landfill, incinerate, and recycle?
~65% landfill, ~7% incinerated, ~18% recycled
How many cell phone subscribers are there?
In 2006 ~2.5 billion
How many new cell phones were introduced between 2005 and 2006?
How many americans own cell phones?
How frequently does the average user replace their cell?