1. failure rate
    The number of women out of 100 who become pregnant by the end of 1 year of using a particular contraceptive.
  2. backup methods
    Contraceptive methods used simultaenously with another method to support it.
  3. outercourse
    Noncoital forms of sexual intimacy.
  4. Hormone based methods
    General type of contraception method that uses hormones.
  5. Constant-dose combination pills (contains synthetic estrogen and progestin)
    Birth control pills that contain a constatly daily dose of estrogen.
  6. Triphasic pill (been in the market since 1984)
    Birth control pills that vary the dosages of estrogen and progestin during menstrual cycle. Designed to reduce total hormone dosage and side effects while maintaining contraceptive effectiveness.
  7. Seasonale (extended cycle contraceptive)
    Birth control pills that reduce menstrual periods to four times a year. Has a lower dose of estrogen and progestin than most other constant dose or triphasic pills.
  8. Progestin-only pill (out since 1973)
    Contraceptive pills that contain a small dose of progestin and no estrogen. Constant dose formula but no estrogen.
  9. Vaginal Ring (NuvaRing and Ortho Evra)
    Type of contraceptive that releases hormones embedded in them through the vaginal lining or skin into thebloodstream. uses higher levels of estrogen than the pill or ring.
  10. Contraceptive Implant (implanon 1998)
    A matchstick-side slendor rod that is inserted under the skin of the upper arm and releases contraceptive hormones.
  11. Barrier Methods
    A type of method that prevents sperm from reaching an ovum.
  12. condoms
    A sheat that fits over the penis and is used for protection againts unwated pregnancy and STIs.
  13. vaginal spermicides
    Foam, cream, jelly, suppositories, and film that contain a chemical that kills sperm.
  14. intrauterine device (IUD)
    A small, plastic device that is inserted into the uterus for contraception.
  15. emergency contraception
    Hormone pills or an IUD that can be used after unprotected intercourse to prevent pregnancy.
  16. fertility awareness methods
    Birth control methods that use the signs of cyclic fertility to prevent or plan conception.
  17. standard days method
    A birth control method that requires couples to avoid unprotected intercourse for 12 day period in the middle of the menstrual cycle.
  18. mucus method
    A birth control method based on determining the time of ovulation by means of the cyclical changes of the cervical mucus.
  19. calendar method
    A birth control method based on abstinence from intercourse during calendar estimated fertile days.
  20. basal body temperature method
    A birth control method based on body temperature changes before and after ovulation.
  21. tubal sterilization
    Female sterilization accomplished by severing or tying the fallopian tubes.
  22. transcervical sterilization
    A method of female sterilization using a tiny coil that is inserted through the vagina, cervix, and uterus into the fallopian tubes.
  23. vasectomy (vas deferens)
    Male sterilization accomplished by cutting and closing each vas deferens.
  24. Douching
    Ineffective birth control method where the women attempts to "clean" the vagina of sperm.
  25. varicocele
    A damaged or enlarged vein in the tesis or vas deferences that causes infertility.
  26. intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
    A method used to inject each harvested egg with a singple sperm and is oneof the advances of reproductive technology.
  27. artificial insemination
    A medical procedure in which semen is placed in a woman's vagina, cervix, or uterus.
  28. surragate mother
    A woman who is artificially inseminated by the male partner in a childless couple, carries the pregnancy to term, delivers the child, and gives it to the couple for adoption.
  29. human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG)
    A hormone that is detectable in the urine of a pregnant woman within 1 month of conception.
  30. spontaneous abortion (miscarriage)
    The spontaneous expulsion of the fetus from the uterus early in pregnancy, before it can survive on its own. Natural selection at work.
  31. elective abortion
    Medical procedure performed to terminate pregnancy.
  32. medical abortion
    The use of medications to end a pregnancy of 7 weeks or less.
  33. suction curettage
    A procedure in which the cervical os is dilated by using graduated metal dilators or a laminaria; then a small plastic tube, attached to a vacuum aspirator, is inserted into the uterus, drawing the fetal tissue, placenta, and built-up uterine lining out of the uterus. Used between 7-13 weeks.
  34. dilation and evacutation (D and E)
    An abortion procedure in which a curette and such equipment are used. This is the safest and most widely used technique when a pregnancy progressed past 12 weeks.
  35. prostaglandins
    Hormones that are used to induce uterine contractions and fetal expulsion for second-trimester abortions.
  36. late-term abortion (intact dilation and evacuation)
    An abortion done between 20 and 24 weeks when serious health risks to the woman or severe fetal abnormalities exists.
  37. zygote
    A single cell resulting from the union of sperm and egg cells.
  38. blastocyst
    Multicellular descendat of the united sperm and ovum that implants on the wall of the uterus.
  39. vernix caseosa
    A waxy, protective substance on the fetus's skin.
  40. placenta
    A disk shaped organ attached to the uterine wall and connected to the fetus by the umbilical cord. Nutrients, oxygen, and waste products pass between mother and fetus through the cell walls of the placenta.
  41. fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
    Syndrome in infants caused by heavy maternal prenatal alcohol use; characterized by congenital heart defects, damaged to the brain and nervous system, numerous physical malformations of the fetus, and below normal IQ.
  42. prepared childbirth
    Birth following an education process that can involve information, exercises, breating, and working with a labor coach.
  43. first-stage labor
    The initial stage of childbirth in which regular contractions begin and the cervix dilates.
  44. Effacement
    Flattening and thinning of the cervix that occurs before and during childbirth
  45. second-stage labor
    The middle stage of labor in which the infant descends through the vaginal canal. Lasts from half to 2 hours.
  46. third-stage labor
    The last stage of childbirth, in which the placenta separates from the uterine wall and comes out of the vagina.
  47. afterbirth
    The placenta and amniotic sac following their explusion through the vagina after childbirth.
  48. cesarean section (C-section)
    A childbirth procedure in which the infant is removed through an incision in the abdomen and uterus.
  49. postpartum period
    The first several weeks after childbirth.
  50. postpartum depression (PPD)
    Symptoms of depression and possibly obsesive thoughts of hurting the baby. Affects 15% of mothers.
  51. Colostrum
    A thin fluid secreted by the breasts during later stages of pregnancy and the first few days after delivery which contains antibodies and protein.
  52. lochia
    A reddish uterine discharge that accors after childbirth. Couples can't have sex until this discharge.
  53. episiotomy
    An incision in the perineum that is sometimes made during childbirth. Ouch..may happen after childbirth along with vaginal tears that heals in about 3-4 weeks.
Card Set
Ch. 10: Contraception Ch. 11: Conceiving Children: Process and Choice