regions are innervated by the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord?
What is the
collective name for all of the axons that project inferiorly from the spinal
cauda equina is a thin strand of pia mater called the
Cell bodies of
sensory neurons are housed in each
posterior root ganglion
contains motor axons only?
intervertebral foramen, an anterior root and its corresponding posterior root
unite to form a
The spinal cord
meninges, in order from the outermost to the innermost, are the
- The spinal cord
- meninges, in order from the outermost to the innermost, are the
protective ____________ extends between adjacent vertebrae to fuse with the
connective tissue surrounding the spinal nerves.
dura mater and the inner walls of the vertebrae is the
that fills the subarachnoid space is
What are the
paired, triangular extensions of the pia mater that help anchor the spinal cord
laterally to the dura mater?
region of the spinal cord, composed primarily of myelinated axons, is called the
The word root
most nearly means
horns found in the T1-L2 regions of the spinal cord contain
cell bodies of autonomic motor neurons
cord components contain cell bodies of interneurons and axons of sensory
White matter of
the spinal cord is partitioned into ____________, each containing both ascending
and descending ____________.
funiculi are interconnected by the
nerves inferior to ____________ exit below
the vertebra of the same
describes the specific region of skin monitored by a single spinal nerve?
rami of spinal nerves T1-T11
are called intercostal nerves
principal nerve plexuses are the
cervical, brachial, lumbar, and sacral
which plexuses innervate anterior neck muscles, the skin of the neck, and parts
of the head and shoulders?
Nerves from the
brachial plexuses innervate the
pectoral girdles and upper limbs
All of the
following branch from the lumbar plexus except
innervates the posterior thigh and leg muscles, plantar foot muscles, and skin
of the sole of the foot?
best describes reflex responses?
The first step
involved in a typical neural reflex is
activation of a receptor by a stimulus
Which of the
following is not
generally involved in a reflex?
inhibition of an effector by a stimulus from a motor neuron
If its receptor
and effector are on the same side of the body, a reflex arc is termed
____________; if on opposite sides, it is ____________
A familiar type
of monosynaptic reflex that monitors and regulates the length of skeletal muscle
Where does the
adult spinal cord end?
- immediately above the filum terminale
- at the tip of the conus medullaris
- usually at the level of vertebra L1
- all of the above
extending from the end of the spinal cord, the ____________ contains no neural
fibers, only fibrous connective tissue.
and anterior roots of the ____________ must elongate because the spinal cord
stops growing before the vertebral column does.
Fibers of the
____________ intertwine on one side with those of another meninx, and on the
other, with glial cells.
meningeal layer is sandwiched between a potential space and a very significant
space occupied by connective tissue fibers and cerebrospinal fluid?
prevent side-to-side and inferior movement of the spinal cord are paired
____________ that connect the pia mater to the dura mater.
nuclei of the spinal cord contain which type of neuron cell bodies?
In the spinal
cord, a ____________ is to a tract
as a horn
is to a
structures would not
be found in the anterior horns of the spinal cord?
cell bodies of autonomic motor neurons
of the brachial plexus are actually
the anterior rami of spinal nerves
of spinal nerves innervate the limbs and the anterolateral portions of the
following, which nerve ranges farthest from its roots in the cervical plexus and
is most vital to your health?
In a freak
golfing accident, Jim damaged a nerve in his arm and now has trouble extending
his forearm, wrist, and fingers. Which nerve did he damage?
and "drunkard's paralysis" both refer to conditions resulting from injury to the
____________ of the brachial plexus.
Which nerve is
most likely to be injured by fractures or dislocations of the elbow (or by an
extra hard hit to the "funny bone")?
Damage to which
nerve would likely cause the most severe dysfunction in both the urinary and
Bob had polio
as a child and now drags his right leg slightly when he walks because of
weakness in flexing his hip and extending his knee. In addition, his leg swings
outward slightly with each step, and he has difficulty in crossing his right leg
over his left. These all result from damage to which nerve?
of the lumbar plexus innervate muscles of the anterior abdominal wall?
iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves
sensation in a single dermatome on one side of the body could indicate damage to
a spinal nerve or to
a posterior root ganglion
branch of the brachial plexus innervates the skin just distolateral to the
acromion, as well as an abductor and a lateral rotator of the arm?
If a reflex arc
involves a single interneuron, it is classified as
____________ reflex accompanied by ____________ strongly indicates brain or
spinal cord injury.
In males, what
reflex protects a testis from damage by elevating it when the medial side of the
thigh is briskly stroked?
infants but indicative of CNS damage in adults, the ____________ is essentially
a reversal of the ____________ reflex.
Babinski sign; plantar
inferior end of the spinal cord is called the
root of a spinal nerve contains
axons of motor neurons only.
meningeal layer immediately deep to the subdural space.
from one side of the spinal cord to the other through a gray matter region
nerve originates from the ________ plexus.
provides motor innervation to the deep back muscles and receives sensory
information from the skin of the back?
Lower limbs are
supplied by neurons from the______ of the spinal cord.
subarachnoid space contains ________, and the epidural space contains ________.
CSF; fat, connective tissue, and blood vessels
matter of the spinal cord is composed primarily of
is true about intercostal nerves?
They originate from the thoracic region of the spinal cord.