Biology 104 Test 4

  1. Primary Pollutant
    chemicals released directly into the air in a harmful form
  2. Secondary Pollutants
    • chemicals modified to a hazardous form after entering the
    • air or that are formed by chemical reactions as components of the air mix and interact
  3. Fugitive Emissions
    substances that enter the air without going through a smokestack, such as dust from soil erosion, strip mining, rock crushing, construction, and building demolition
  4. Ambient Air
    the air immediately around us
  5. Conventional or Criteria
    the seven major pollutants (sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulates, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, photochemical oxidants, and lead) identified and regulated by the U.S. Clean Air Act
  6. Sulfur Dioxide
    a colorless, corrosive gas directly damaging to both plants and animals
  7. Nitrogen Oxides
    highly reactive gases formed when nitrogen in fuel or combustion air is heated to over 650º C (1,200º F) in the presence of oxygen or when bacteria in soil or water oxidize nitrogen-containing compounds
  8. Carbon Monoxide (CO)
    colorless, odorless, nonirritating but highly toxic gas produced incomplete combustion of fuel, incineration of biomass or solid waste, or particularly anaerobic decomposition of organic material
  9. Aerosol
    minute particles or liquid droplets suspended in the air
  10. Particulate Material
    atmospheric aerosols, such as dust, ash, soot lint, smoke, pollen, spores, algal cells, and other suspended materials; originally applied only to solid particles but now extended to droplets of liquid
  11. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
    organic chemicals that evaporate readily and exist as gases in the air
  12. Photochemical oxidants
    products of secondary atmospheric reactions
  13. Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs)
    especially dangerous air pollutants including carcinogens, neurotoxins, mutagens, teratogens, endocrine system disrupters and other highly toxic compounds
  14. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI)
    a program created by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1984 that requires manufacturing facilities and waste handling and disposal sites to report annually on releases of more than 300 toxic materials
  15. Aesthetic Degradation
    changes in environmental quality that offend our aesthetic senses
  16. Temperature Inversions
    a stable layer of warm air overlays cooler air, trapping pollutants near ground level
  17. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
    chemical compounds with a carbon skeleton and one or more attached chlorine and fluorine atoms. Commonly used as refrigerants, solvents, fire retardants, and blowing agents
  18. Stratospheric Ozone
    the ozone (O3), occurring in the stratosphere 10 to 50 km above the earth’s surface
  19. Bronchitis
    a persistent inflammation of bronchi and bronchioles (large and small airways in the lungs)
  20. Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease
    irreversible damage to the linings of the lungs caused by irritants
  21. Synergistic Effects
    when an injury caused by exposure to two environmental factors together is greater than the sum of exposure to each factor individually
  22. Acid Precipitation
    acidic rain, snow, dry particles deposited from the air due to increased acids released by anthropogenic or natural resources
  23. Work
    the application of force through a distance; requires energy input
  24. Joules
    a unit of energy. One joule is the energy expended in 1 second by a current of 1 amp flowing through a resistance of 1 ohm
  25. Energy
    the capacity to do work (that is, to change the physical state of motion of the crop)
  26. Power
    the rate of energy delivery; measured in horsepower or watts
  27. Watt
    the force exerted by 1 joule, or the equivalent of a current of 1 amp per second flowing through a resistance of 1 ohm
  28. Fossil Fuels
    petroleum, natural gas, and coal created by geological forces from organic wastes and dead bodies of formally living biological organisms
  29. Black Lung Disease
    inflammation and fibrosis-caused by accumulation of coal dust in the lungs or airways
  30. Carbon Sequestration
    storing carbon (usually in the form of CO2) in geological formations or at the bottom of the ocean
  31. Tar Sands
    sand deposits containing petroleum or tar
  32. Oil Shale
    a fine-grained sedimentary rock rich in solid organic material called kerogen. When heated, the kerogen liquefies to produce a fluid petroleum fuel
  33. Fuel Assembly
    a bundle of hollow metal rods containing uranium oxide pellets; used to fuel a nuclear reactor
  34. Nuclear Fission
    the radioactive decay process in which isotopes split apart to create two smaller atoms
  35. Chain Reaction
    a self-sustaining reaction in which fission of nuclei produces subatomic particles that cause the fission of other nuclei
  36. Control Rods
    neutron-absorbing material inserted into spaces between fuel assemblies in nuclear reactors to regulate fission reaction
  37. Breeder Reactors
    a nuclear reactor that produces fuel by bombarding isotopes of uranium and thorium with high-energy neutrons that convert inert atoms to fissionable ones
  38. High-level Waste Repository
    a nuclear reactor that produces fuel by bombarding isotopes of uranium and thorium with high-energy neutrons that convert inert atoms to fissionable ones
  39. Monitored, Retrievable Storage
    holding wastes in underground mines or secure surface facilities such as dry casks where they can be watched and repackaged, if necessary
  40. Nuclear Fusion
    a process in which two smaller atomic nuclei fuse into one larger nucleus and release energy; the source of power in a hydrogen bomb
  41. Energy Efficiency
    a measure of energy produced compared to energy consumed
  42. Hybrid Gasoline-electric Engines
    a small gasoline engine that generates electricity that has stored in batteries and powers electric motors that drive vehicle wheels
  43. Plug-in Hybrids
    vehicles with hybrid gasoline-electric engines adapted with a larger battery array (enough to propel the vehicle for 50 km or so on the batteries alone) and a plug-in to recharge the batteries from a standard electric outlet
  44. Cogeneration
    the simultaneous production of electricity and steam or hot water in the same plant
  45. Passive Heat Absorption
    the use of natural materials or absorptive structures without moving parts to gather and hold heat; the simplest and oldest use of solar energy
  46. Active Solar Systems
    a mechanical system that actively collects, concentrates, and stores solar energy
  47. Green Pricing
    setting prices to encourage conservation or renewable energy. Plans that invite customers to pay a premium for energy from renewable sources
  48. Photovoltaic Cells
    an energy-conversion device that captures solar energy and directly converts it to electrical current
  49. Amorphous Silicon Collectors
    photovoltaic cells that collect solar energy and convert it to electricity using noncrystalline (randomly arranged) thin films of silicon
  50. Fuel Cells
    mechanical devices that use hydrogen or hydrogen-containing fuel such as methane to produce an electric current. Fuel cells are clean, quiet, and highly efficient sources of electricity
  51. Reformer
    a device that strips hydrogen from fuels such natural gas, methanol, ammonia, gasoline, or vegetable oil so they can be used in a fuel cell
  52. Biofuels
    fuels such as ethanol, methanol, or vegetable oils from crops
  53. Low-head Hydropower
    small-scale hydro technology that can extract energy from small headwater dams; causes much less ecological damage
  54. Run-of-the-river Flow
    ordinary river flow not accelerated by dams, flumes, etc. Some small, modern, efficiency turbines can generate useful power with run-of-the-river flow or with a current of only a few kilometers per hour
  55. Micro-hydro Generators
    small power generators that can be used in low-level rivers to provide economical power for 4 to 6 homes, freeing them from dispense on large utilities and foreign energy supplies
  56. Geothermal Energy
    energy drawn from the internal heat of the earth, either through geysers, fumaroles, hot springs, or other natural geothermal features, or through deep wells that pump heated groundwater
  57. Ocean Thermal Electric Conversion (OTEC)
    energy derived from temperature differentials between warm ocean surface waters and cold deep waters. This differential can be used to drive turbines attached to electrical generators
  58. Urban Agglomerations
    an aggregation of many cities into a large metropolitan area
  59. Rural Area
    an area in which most residents depend on agriculture or the harvesting of natural resources for their livelihood
  60. Urban Area
    an area in which a majority of the people are not directly dependent on natural resource-based occupations
  61. Village
    a collection of rural households linked by culture, custom, and association with the land
  62. City
    a differentiated community with a sufficient population and resource base to allow residents to specialize in arts, crafts, services, and professional occupations
  63. Megacity
    also known as megalopolis or supercity; megalopolis indicated an urban area with more than 10 million inhabitants
  64. Core Regions
    the primary industrial region of a country; usually located around the capital or largest port; has both the greatest population density and the greatest economic activity of the country
  65. Push Factors
    (in urbanization) conditions that force people out of the country into the city
  66. Pull Factors
    (in urbanization) conditions that draw people from the country into the city
  67. Shantytowns
    settlements created when people move onto undeveloped lands and build their own shelter with cheap or discarded materials; some are simply illegal subdivisions where a landowner rents land without city approval; others are land invasions
  68. Squatter Towns
    shantytowns that occupy land without owner’s permission; some are highly organized movements in defiance of authorities; others grow gradually
  69. Smart Growth
    efficient use of land resources and existing urban infrastructures
  70. Garden Cities
    a new town with special emphasis on landscaping and rural ambience
  71. New Towns
    experimental urban environments that seek to combine the best features of the rural village and the modern city
  72. Greenfield Developments
    housing projects built on previously undeveloped farmlands or forests on the outskirts of large cities
  73. Brownfield Developments
    building on abandoned or reclaimed polluted industrial sites
  74. Conservation Development
    consideration of landscape history, human culture, topography, and ecological values in subdivision design. Using cluster housing, zoning, covenants, and other design features, at least half of a subdivision can be preserved as open space, farmland, or natural areas
  75. Waste stream
    the steady flow of varied wastes, from domestic garbage and yard wastes to industrial, commercial, and construction refuse
  76. Great Pacific Garbage Patch
    a huge expanse of the Pacific Ocean stretching from about 500 nautical miles off the coast of California almost to Japan in which floating refuse and trash is accumulated and concentrated by ocean currents. It’s estimated that is swirling garbage vortex contains at least 100 million tons of flotsam and jetsam, much of it plastic that has been ground up into tiny particles
  77. Electronic waste (e-waste)
    discarded electronic equipment such as computers, cell phones, television sets, etc.
  78. Sanitary landfills
    a landfill in which garbage and municipal waste is buried every day under enough soil or fill to eliminate odors, vermin, and litter
  79. Energy recovery
    incineration of solid waste to produce useful energy
  80. Refuse-derived fuel
    processing of solid waste to remove metal, glass, and other unburnable materials; organic residue is shredded, formed into pellets, and dried to make fuel to power plants
  81. Mass burn
    incineration of unsorted solid waste
  82. Recycling
    reprocessing of discarded materials into new, useful products; not the same as reuse of materials for their original purpose, but the terms are often used interchangeably
  83. Composting
    the biological degradation of organic material under aerobic (oxygen-rich) conditions to produce compost, a nutrient-rich soil amendment and conditioner
  84. Demanufacturing
    disassembly or products so components can be reused or recycled
  85. Photodegradable plastics
    plastics that break down when exposed to sunlight or to a specific wavelength or light
  86. Biodegradable plastics
    plastics that can be decomposed by microorganisms
  87. Hazardous waste
    any discarded material containing substances known to be toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, or teratogens to humans or other life-forms; ignitable, corrosive, explosive, or highly reactive alone or with other materials
  88. Superfund
    a fund established by Congress to pay for containment, cleanup, or remediation of abandoned toxic waste sites. The fund is financed by fees paid by toxic waste generators and by cost-recovery from cleanup projects
  89. Brownfields
    abandoned or underused urban areas in which redevelopment is blocked by liability or financing issues related to toxic contamination
  90. Bioremediation
    use of biological organisms to remove or detoxify pollutants from a contaminated area
  91. Permanent retrievable storage
    placing waste storage containers in a secure building, salt mine, or bedrock cavern where they can be inspected periodically and retrieved, if necessary
  92. Secure Landfills
    a solid waste disposal site lined and capped with an impermeable barrier to prevent leakage or leaching. Drain tiles, sampling wells, and vent systems provide monitoring and pollution control
  93. Policy
    a societal plan or statement of intentions intended to accomplish some social good
  94. Rational choice
    public decision making based on reason, logic, and science-based management
  95. Precautionary principle
    the decision to leave a margin of safety for unexpected developments
  96. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
    is the cornerstone of U.S. environmental policy. It authorizes the Council on Environmental Quality, directs federal agencies to take environmental consequences into account when making decisions, and requires an environmental impact statement for every major federal project likely to have adverse environmental effects
  97. Environmental impact statement (EIS)
    an analysis, required by provisions in the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970, of the effects of any major program a federal agency plans to undertake
  98. Environmental law
    the special body of official rules, decisions, and actions concerning environmental quality, natural resources, and ecological sustainability
  99. Statute law
    formal documents or decrees enacted by the legislative branch of government
  100. Case law
    precedents from both civil and criminal court cases
  101. Administrative law
    executive orders, administrative rules and regulations, and enforcement decisions by administrative agencies and special administrative courts
  102. Riders
    amendments attached to bills in conference committee, often completely unrelated to the bill to which they are added
  103. Standing
    the right to take part in legal processing
  104. Common law
    the body of court decisions that constitute a working definition of individual rights and responsibilities where no formal statutes define these issues
  105. Tort law
    court cases that seek compensation for damages
  106. Strategic lawsuits against public participation (SLAPP)
    • lawsuits that have no merit but are brought merely to
    • intimidate and harass private citizens who act in the public interest
  107. Environmental governance
    rules and regulations that govern our impacts on the environment and natural resources
  108. Wicked problems
    problems with no simple right or wrong answer where there is no single, generally agreed-on definition of or solution for the particular issue
  109. Adaptive management
    a management plan designed from the outset to “learn by doing,” and to actively test hypotheses and adjust treatments as new information becomes available
  110. Resilience
    the ability of a community or ecosystem to recover from disturbances
  111. Arbitration
    a formal process of dispute resolution in which there are stringent rules of evidence, cross-examination of witnesses, and a legally binding decision made by the arbitrator that all parties must obey
  112. Mediation
    an informal dispute resolution process in which parties are encouraged to discuss issues openly but in all decisions are reached by consensus and any participant can withdraw at any time
  113. Green plans
    • integrated national environmental plans for reducing
    • pollution and resource consumption while achieving sustainable development and
    • environmental restoration
  114. Environmental policy
    the official rules orregulations concerning the environment adopted, implemented, and enforced bysome governmental agency
Card Set
Biology 104 Test 4
Vocab words for Biology 104 Test #4