1. Genocide
    systematic killing of a racial or cultural group
  2. Social Darwinism
    The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
  3. Communism
    a form of socialism that abolishes private ownership
  4. Populism
    the political doctrine that supports the rights and powers of the common people in their struggle with the privileged elite
  5. Capitalism
    an economic system based on private ownership of capital
  6. Facism
    political system based on a strong centralized government headed by a dictator
  7. Embargo
    a government order imposing a trade barrier
  8. Mohandas Gandhi
    A philosopher from India, this man was a spiritual and moral leader favoring India's independence from Great Britain. He practiced passive resistance, civil disobedience and boycotts to generate social and political change.
  9. Adolf Hitler
    • German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945)
    • Vladimir Lenin Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)
  10. Margaret Thatcher
    British stateswoman
  11. Mikhail Gorbachev
    Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms (born in 1931), Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms (born in 1931)
  12. Gamal Nasser
    Egyptian leader who took US money and began cooperation with USSR, nationalized Suez Canal and envoked war with Britain, France, and Israel
  13. Nelson Mandela
    South African statesman who was released from prison to become the nation's first democratically elected president in 1994 (born in 1918)
  14. Mao Tse Tung
    chinese communist leader. He led the communist party of china to victory against the KMT in the chinese civil war and was leader of the prc. Known as a great leader
  15. Allied Powers
    Great Britain, France, Italy, Russia, and later the US
  16. Appeasement
    the act of appeasing (as by acceding to the demonds of)
  17. Great Depression
    the economic crisis and period of low business activity in the U.S. and other countries, roughly beginning with the stock-market crash in October, 1929, and continuing through most of the 1930s.
  18. Holocaust
    an act of great destruction and loss of life
  19. League of Nations
    • an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
    • Mandate the commission that is given to a government and its policies through an electoral victory
  20. Pan - Slavic Movement
    A movement advocating the political and cultural union of Slavic nations and peoples.
  21. Potsdam Confrence
    meeting among leaders of allies near end of ww2
  22. Reparations
    payment for damages after a war
  23. Spanish Civil War
    civil war in Spain in which General Franco succeeded in overthrowing the republican government
  24. Anschluss
    union of Austria and Germany
  25. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    This treaty ended Russias participation in the war.
  26. Treaty of Versailles
    the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
  27. United Nations
    an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security
  28. Yalta Conference
    FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
  29. nationalism
    love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
  30. imperialism
    any instance of aggressive extension of authority
  31. euro
    the basic monetary unit of most members of the European Union (introduced in 1999)
  32. european economic community
    an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
  33. european union
    an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
  34. import substitution industrialization
    • An economic system aimed at building a country's industry by restricting foreign trade. It was especially popular in Latin American countries such as Mexico, Argentina, and Brazil in the mid-twentieth century. (823)
    • mcdonaldization the process by which the principles of efficiency, calculability, predictability, and control shape organization and decision making, in the United States and around the world
  35. nafta
    North American Free Trade Agreement; allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada
  36. militarism
    a political orientation of a people or a government to maintain a strong military force and to be prepared to use it aggresively to defend or promote national interests
  37. Afrikaners
    South Africans descended from Dutch and French settlers of the seventeenth century. Their Great Trek founded new settler colonies in the nineteenth century. Though a minority among South Africans, they held political power after 1910. (735)
  38. Apartheid
    a social policy or racial segregation involving political and economic and legal discrimination against non-whites
  39. Ayatollah
    a high-ranking Shiite religious leader who is regarded as an authority on religious law and its interpretation and who has political power as well
  40. berlin wall
    a wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
  41. brinkmanship
    the policy of pushing a dangerous situation to the brink of disaster (to the limits of safety)
  42. coalition
    the union of diverse things into one body or form or group
  43. cold war
    a state of political conflict using means short of armed warfare
  44. collectivization
    the organization of a nation or economy on the basis of collectivism
  45. containment
    (military) the act of containing something or someone
  46. cuban missile crisis
    the 1962 confrontation bewteen US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba
  47. cultural revolution
    a radical reform in China initiated by Mao Zedong in 1965 and carried out largely by the Red Guard
  48. five year plan
    The Five-Year Plans of China are a series of economic development initiatives. The economy was shaped by the Chinese Communist Party through the plenary sessions of the Central Committee and national congresses. ...
  49. geneva conference
    • French wanted out of Vietnam
    • the agreement signed by Ho Chi Minh France divided Vietnam on the 17th parallel, confining Minh's government to the North. In the South, an independent government was headed by Diem.
  50. iron curtain
    an impenetrable barrier to communication or information especially as imposed by rigid censorship and secrecy
  51. korean conflict (June 25, 1950)
    North Korea crossed 38th parallel in an aggressive manner, This plan had been pre-approved by Stalin and Mao
  52. kulaks
    Rich peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labour. They were their own class.
  53. marshall plan
    a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
  54. may fourth movement
    was an anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement growing out of student demonstrations in Beijing
  55. nonalignment
    people (or countries) who are not aligned with other people (or countries) in a pact or treaty
  56. new economic policy
    Policy proclaimed by Vladimir Lenin in 1924 to encourage the revival of the Soviet economy by allowing small private enterprises. Joseph Stalin ended the N.E.P. in 1928 and replaced it with a series of Five-Year Plans. (See also Lenin, Vladimir.) (p. 766)
  57. north atlantic treaty organization
    an international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security
  58. prague spring
    was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union
  59. purges
    was a series of campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin
  60. red guard
    a radical political movement by Chinese youths who espoused Maoist principles
  61. six day war
    tension between Arabs and Israeli erupted into a brief war in June 1967
  62. solidarity
    a union of interests or purposes or sympathies among members of a group
  63. tiananmen square
    • Site in Beijing where Chinese students and workers gathered to demand greater political openness in 1989. The demonstration was crushed by Chinese military with great loss of life.
    • truman doctrine President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
  64. warsaw pact
    treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
  65. al qaeda
    • Islamist terrorist organization that launched a series of attacks against U.S.
    • cartels combinations of corporations that control an entire industry
  66. international monetary fund
    a United Nations agency to promote trade by increasing the exchange stability of the major currencies
  67. persian gulf war
    a war fought between a coalition led by the United States and Iraq to free Kuwait from Iraqi invaders
  68. world bank
    a United Nations agency created to assist developing nations by loans guaranteed by member governments
  69. strategic defense initiative
    Popularly known as "Star Wars," President Reagan's SDI proposed the construction of an elaborate computer-controlled, anti-missile defense system capable of destroying enemy missiles in outer spaced. Critics claimed that SDI could never be perfected.
  70. third reich
    the Nazi dictatorship under Hitler (1933-1945)
  71. triple alliance,
    central powers was one of the two sides that participated in World War I, the other being the Entente (Allied) Powers.
  72. triple entente,
    • the allies
    • was one of the two sides that participated in World War I, the other being the Entente (central) Powers.
  73. opec
    an organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum
  74. wto
    an international organization based in Geneva that monitors and enforces rules governing global trade
  75. helsinki accords
    Political and human rights agreement signed in Helsinki, Finland, by the Soviet Union and western European countries. (p. 839)
  76. hubble space telescope
    a space telescope and camera named for a famous astronaut (Edward Hubble) used to study space elements
  77. international space station
    • Program whose chief purpose scientific research
    • sputnik a Russian artificial satellite
  78. cubism
    an artistic movement in France beginning in 1907 that featured surfaces of geometrical planes
  79. evangelical
    marked by ardent or zealous enthusiasm for a cause
  80. mass consumerism
    • trade in products designed to appeal to a global market
    • national organization for women Founded in 1966, the National Organization for Women (NOW) called for equal employment opportunity and equal pay for women. NOW also championed the legalization of abortion and passage of an equal rights amendment to the Constitution.
  81. new deal
    a reapportioning of something
  82. welfare state
    is a concept of government where the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the economic and social well-being of its citizens. It is based on the principles of equality of opportunity, equitable distribution of wealth, and public responsibility for those unable to avail themselves of the minimal provisions for a good life. The general term may cover a variety of forms of economic and social organization
  83. green revolution
    the introduction of pesticides and high-yield grains and better management during the 1960s and 1970s which greatly increased agricultural productivity
  84. guest workers
    • Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern of Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher-paying jobs.
    • ozone depletion describes two distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total volume of ozone in Earth's stratosphere (the ozone layer) since the late 1970s, and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earth's polar regions during the same period. The latter phenomenon is commonly referred to as the ozone hole. In addition to this well-known stratospheric ozone depletion, there are also tropospheric ozone depletion events, which occur near the surface in polar regions during spring
  85. axis powers
    also known as the Axis alliance, Axis nations, Axis countries, or just the Axis, comprised the countries that were opposed to the Allies during World War II. The three major Axis powers—Germany, Japan, and Italy—were part of a military alliance on the signing of the Tripartite Pact in September 1940, which officially founded the Axis powers. At their zenith, the Axis powers ruled empires that dominated large parts of Europe, Africa, East and Southeast Asia and the Pacific Ocean, but World War II ended with their total defeat and dissolution. Like the Allies, membership of the Axis was fluid, and other nations entered and later left the Axis during the course of the war
  86. ethnic cleansing
    the mass expulsion and killing of one ethic or religious group in an area by another ethnic or religious group in that area
  87. armenian genocide
    the Turkish government organized the department of the armenians in the Ottoman Empire and over a million were murdered or starved - one of the first genocides of the 20th centuries
  88. nuremberg war crimes trial trial for 22 former Nazi leaders
  89. russian revolution
    the revolution against the Czarist government which led to the abdication of Nicholas II and the creation of a provisional government in March 1917
  90. general francisco franco In 1936 the Spanish Civil War began. Franco led the Fascists, fighting republican forces. In 1939, the Fascist forces won (with help from Italy and Germany). Franco ruled until his death in 1975.
  91. october revolution
    the coup d'etat by the Bolsheviks under Lenin in November 1917 that led to a period of civil war which ended in victory for the Bolsheviks in 1922
  92. leon trotsky
    Russian revolutionary and Communist theorist who helped Lenin and built up the army
  93. joseph stalin
    Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
  94. great purges
    Stalin's mass systemic murder of millions to instill fear and to have someone to fight against
  95. gulags harsh Soviet labor camps often located in Siberia
  96. benito mussolini
    Italian fascist dictator (1883-1945)
  97. italian fascist party
    Attracted dissatisfied war veterans, nationalist, and those afraid of rising communism. Marched on Rome and installed Mussolini in power.
  98. weimar republic the German republic founded at Weimar in 1919
  99. mein kampf
    Book written by Hitler while he was exiled, my struggle.
  100. nurember laws
    The laws classified people as German if all four of their grandparents were of "German or kindred blood", while people were classified as Jews if they descended from three or four Jewish grandparents. A person with one or two Jewish grandparents was a Mischling, a crossbreed, of "mixed blood The Nuremberg Laws deprived Jews of citizenship and prohibited marriage between Jews and other Germans
  101. young turks
    from French: Jeunes Turcs) were a coalition of various groups favoring reformation of the administration of the Ottoman Empire. The movement was against the monarchy of Ottoman Sultan and favored a re-installation of the shortlived Kanûn-ı Esâsî constitution. They established the second constitutional era in 1908 with what would become known as the Young Turk Revolution. The term Young Turks referred to the members of the Ottoman society who were progressive, modernist and opposed to the status quo. The movement built a rich tradition of dissent that shaped the intellectual, political and artistic life of the late Ottoman period generally transcendent to the decline and dissolution periods. Many Young Turks were not only active in the political arena, but were also artists, administrators, or scientists. The term "Young Turks" has subsequently come to signify any groups or individuals inside an organization who are progressive and seek prominence and power
  102. mustafa kemal ataturk
    westernized and modernized Turkey in the early 1900's
  103. balfour declaration
    British document that promised land in Palestine as homeland for Jews in exchange for Jews help in WWI
  104. ibn saud
    first monarch of saudi arabia
  105. sun yat sen
    The first great revolutionary leader in 20th century China who founded the ALliance League in 1905. The League aimed to overthrow the Qing to make china a republic, get rid of foreign powers and distribute land to peasants. He created the three principles of the people, Nationalism, Socialism and Democracy. After the Revolution, he returned from overseas to lead china, however failed to leaed successfully. He handed power to Yuan Shikai.
  106. yuan shikai
    Chinese general and first president of the Chinese Republic (1912-1916). He stood in the way of the democratic movement led by Sun Yat-sen. (p. 768)
  107. chinese communist party formed the People's Republic of China in 1949 and is quick to quiet those who oppose it
  108. total war
    the channeling of a nation's entire resources into a war effort
  109. muhammad ali jinnah
    • was a 20th century lawyer, politician, statesman and the founder of Pakistan. He is popularly and officially known in Pakistan as Quaid-e-Azam (Urdu: قائد اعظم — "Great Leader") and Baba-e-Qaum (بابائے قوم) ("Father of the Nation").
    • Jinnah served as leader of the All-India Muslim League from 1913 till Pakistan's independence on August 14, 1947 and Pakistan's first Governor-General from August 15, 1947 till his death on September 11, 1948. Jinnah rose to prominence in the Indian National Congress initially expounding ideas of Hindu-Muslim unity and helping shape the 1916 Lucknow Pact between the Muslim League and the Indian National Congress; he also became a key leader in the All India Home Rule League. He proposed a fourteen-point constitutional reform plan to safeguard the political rights of Muslims in a self-governing India.
    • Jinnah, advocating the Two-Nation Theory, embraced the goal of creating a separate state for Muslims as per the Lahore Resolution. The League won most reserved Muslim seats in the elections of 1946. After the British and Congress backed out of the Cabinet Mission Plan Jinnah called for a Direct Action Day to achieve the formation of Pakistan. The direct action[5][6] by the Muslim League and its Volunteer Corps, resulted in massive rioting in Calcutta[6][7] between Muslims and Hindus/Sikhs.[8][7] As the Indian National Congress and Muslim League failed to reach a power sharing formula for united India, it prompted both the parties and the British to agree to independence of Pakistan and India. As the first Governor-General of Pakistan, Jinnah led efforts to lay the foundations of the new state of Pakistan, frame national policies and rehabilitate millions of Muslim refugees who had migrated from India. He died in September 1948, just over a year after Pakistan gained independence from British India
    • muslim league founded at Dacca (now Dhaka, Bangladesh), Bengal Presidency, in 1906, was a political party in British India that played a decisive role during 1940s in the Indian independence movement and developed into the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state on the Indian subcontinent.[1] After the independence of India and Pakistan, the League continued as a minor party in India, especially in Kerala, where it is often in government within a coalition with others. In Pakistan, the League formed the country's first government, but disintegrated during the 1950s following an army coup. One or more factions of the Muslim League have been in power in most of the civilian governments of Pakistan since 1947. In Bangladesh, the party was revived in 1976 and won 14 seats in 1979 parliamentary election. Since then its importance has reduced, rendering it insignificant in the Pakistani political arena.
    • collapse of berlin wall people rejoiced ( except the guards they were afraid they would loose there jobs
    • desalinization the removal of salt (especially from sea water)
  110. multinational corporations
    • companies that operate across national boundaries: also called transitional corporations
    • national congress party is a major political party in India. Founded in 1885 by Allan Octavian Hume, Dadabhai Naoroji, Dinshaw Wacha, Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee, Surendranath Banerjee, Monomohun Ghose, Mahadev Govind Ranade and William Wedderburn, the Indian National Congress became the leader of the Indian Independence Movement, with over 15 million members and over 70 million participants in its struggle against British rule in India. After independence in 1947, it became the nation's dominant political party, led by the Nehru-Gandhi family for the most part, major challenges for party leadership have only recently formed.
  111. nongovernmental organization
    an organization that is not part of the local or state or federal government
  112. pacific rim
    an economic and social region including the country's surrounding the pacific ocean
  113. terrorism
    the calculated use of violence (or threat of violence) against civilians in order to attain goals that are political or religious or ideological in nature
  114. fundamentalist jihad
    a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal
  115. assassination of franz ferdinand
    • Event that sparked WWI
    • germany's "blank check" Germany offered Austria a "blank cheque" for war
    • schlieffen plan Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.
  116. eastern and western fronts
    In WWI, the region of Northern France where the forces of the Allies and the Central Powers battled each other.
  117. trench warfare
    war from inside trenches enemies would try killing eachother with machine guns and tanks, and poison gas
  118. submarine warfare
    • Used during World War I mainly between German U-Boats and Atlantic supply convoys for Great Britain
    • economic mobilization of home front The process of preparing for and carrying out such changes in the organization and functioning of the national economy as are necessary to provide for the most effective use of resources in a national emergency.
    • woodrow wilson 28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
    • fourteen points the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
  119. war guilt clause
    • in treaty of Versailles; declared germany and austria responsible for WWI; ordered Germany to pay reparation to Allied powers
    • totalitarianism a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
  120. february revolution
    • of 1917 was the first of two revolutions in Russia in 1917. It occurred March 8-12 (February 23-27 Old Style) and its immediate result was the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II, the collapse of Imperial Russia and the end of the Romanov dynasty. The non-Communist Russian Provisional Government under Prince Georgy Lvov replaced the Tsar. After the July Days, Lvov was succeeded by Alexander Kerensky. The Provisional Government was an alliance between liberals and socialists who wanted to instigate political reform, creating a democratically-elected executive and constituent assembly.
    • This revolution appeared to break out spontaneously, without any real leadership or formal planning. The tensions that had built up for so long finally exploded into a revolution, and the western city of Petrograd (called Saint Petersburg prior to the First World War) became the focal point of activity.[1]
    • The February Revolution was followed in the same year by the October Revolution, bringing Bolshevik rule and a change in Russia's social structure, and paving the way for the USSR. The two revolutions constituted a change in the composition of the country: the first overthrew the Tsar, and the second instituted a new form of government
  121. provisional government
    temporary government
  122. nazi soviet pact
    agreement signed between hitler and stalin in 1939 which the 2 dictators agreed not to attack eachother
  123. invasion of poland
    Germany invaded, breaking their agreement, so Britain and France declared war, starting World War II
  124. blitzkrieg
    • is an anglicized word describing all-mechanized force concentration of tanks, infantry, artillery and air power, concentrating overwhelming force and rapid speed to break through enemy lines, and once the latter is broken, proceeding without regard to its flank.
    • During the interwar period, aircraft and tank technologies matured and were combined with systematic application of the German tactics of infiltration and bypassing of enemy strong points.[1] When Germany invaded Poland in 1939, Western journalists adopted the term Blitzkrieg to describe this form of armored warfare.[2]
    • "Blitzkrieg" operations worked during the Blitzkrieg campaigns, 1939 - 1941. These operations were dependent on surprise penetrations (e.g. the penetration of the Ardennes forest region), general enemy unpreparedness and an inability to react swiftly enough to the attacker's offensive operations.[3]
    • Only later, during the invasion of the Soviet Union, would the flaws of "Blitzkrieg" come to be realized. In France and Poland the foot-bound infantry had been, at most, a few hours behind the armored spearheads. In the vast open Russian steppe delays of hours would become days.[4] The Germans as well as the Allies, both in the West and the Soviet Union, would eventually realise the failings of "Blitzkrieg" warfare.[5]
    • Academics since the 1970s have questioned the existence of "Blitzkrieg" as a coherent military doctrine or strategy. Many academic historians hold "Blitzkrieg" itself to be a myth. Others continue to use "Blitzkrieg" to describe German strategy and doctrine throughout the Second World War
  125. pearl harbor
    a harbor on Oahu west of Honolulu
  126. operation overlord
    • was the code name for the invasion of western Europe during World War II by Allied forces. The operation began on 6 June 1944 with the Normandy Landings (commonly known as D-Day) when a 12,000-plane strong airborne assault preceded an amphibious assault involving almost 7,000 vessels. Nearly 160,000 troops crossed the English Channel on 6 June, and more than 3 million troops had landed by the end of August.[12][13]
    • Allied land forces that saw combat in Normandy on D-Day itself came from Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Free French forces and Poland also participated in the battle after the assault phase, and there were also minor contingents from Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, the Netherlands, and Norway.[14] Other Allied nations participated in the naval and air forces. Once the beachheads were secured, a three-week military buildup occurred on the beaches before Operation Cobra, the operation to break out from the Normandy beachhead began. The battle for Normandy continued for more than two months, with campaigns to establish a foothold on France, and concluded with the closing of the Falaise pocket on 24 August, the subsequent liberation of Paris on 25 August, and the German retreat across the Seine which was completed on 30 August 1944
  127. strategic bombing
    • a military strategy used in a WWII where the Allies bombed the Japanese for days on end with the goal of weakening their defenses and bringing them to a surrender (which they never do)
    • final solution was Nazi Germany's plan and execution of the systematic genocide of European Jews during World War II, resulting in the final and most deadly phase of the Holocaust. Heinrich Himmler was the chief architect of the plan, and the German Nazi leader Adolf Hitler termed it: "the final solution of the Jewish question" ("die Endlösung der Judenfrage").[1]
    • Mass killings of about one million Jews occurred before the plans of the Final Solution were fully implemented in 1942, but it was only with the decision to eradicate the entire Jewish population that the extermination camps were built and industrialized mass slaughter of Jews began in earnest. This decision to systematically kill the Jews of Europe was made either by the time of or at the Wannsee conference, which took place in Berlin, in the Wannsee Villa on January 20, 1942. The conference was chaired by Reinhard Heydrich. He was acting under the authority given to him by Reichsmarshall Göring in a letter dated July 31, 1941. Göring instructed Heydrich to devise "...the solution of the Jewish problem..." During the conference, there was a discussion held by the group of German Nazi officials how best to handle the "Final Solution of the Jewish Question". A surviving copy of the minutes of this meeting[2] was found by the Allies in 1947, too late to serve as evidence during the first Nuremberg Trials.
    • By the summer of 1942, Operation Reinhard began the systematic extermination of the Jews, although hundreds of thousands already had been killed by death squads and in mass pogroms. In Heinrich Himmler's speech at the Posen Conference of October 6, 1943, Himmler, for the first time, clearly elucidated to all assembled leaders of the Reich to what the "Final Solution" referred
  128. wannsee conference
    was a meeting of senior officials of the Nazi German regime, held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee on 20 January 1942. The purpose of the conference was to inform administrative leaders of Departments responsible for various policies relating to Jews, that Reinhard Heydrich had been appointed as the chief executor of the "Final solution to the Jewish question". In the course of the meeting, Heydrich presented a plan, presumably approved by Adolf Hitler, for the deportation of the Jewish population of Europe and French North Africa (Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia) to German-occupied areas in eastern Europe, and the use of the Jews fit for labour on road-building projects, in the course of which they would eventually die, the surviving remnant to be annihilated after completion of the projects. Instead, as Soviet forces gradually pushed back the German lines, most of the Jews of German-occupied Europe were sent to extermination or concentration camps, or killed where they lived. As a result of the efforts of historian Joseph Wulf, the Wannsee House, where the conference was held, is now a Holocaust Memorial.
  129. auschwitz birkenau
    • was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated in occupied Poland by Nazi Germany during the Second World War. It was the largest of the German concentration camps, consisting of Auschwitz I (the Stammlager or main camp); Auschwitz II-Birkenau (the Vernichtungslager or extermination camp); Auschwitz III-Monowitz, also known as Buna-Monowitz (a labor camp); and 45 satellite camps.[1]
    • Auschwitz is the German name for Oświęcim, the town the camps were located in and around; it was renamed by the Germans after they invaded Poland in September 1939. Birkenau, the German translation of Brzezinka (birch tree), refers to a small Polish village nearby that was mostly destroyed by the Germans to make way for the camp.
    • Auschwitz II-Birkenau was designated by Heinrich Himmler, Germany's Minister of the Interior, as the locus of the "final solution of the Jewish question in Europe." From spring 1942 until the fall of 1944, transport trains delivered Jews to the camp's gas chambers from all over Nazi-occupied Europe.[2] The camp's first commandant, Rudolf Höss, testified after the war at the Nuremberg Trials that up to three million people had died there (2.5 million exterminated, and 500,000 from disease and starvation),[3] a figure since revised to 1.1 million, around 90 percent of them Jews.[4] Others deported to Auschwitz included 150,000 Poles, 23,000 Roma and Sinti, 15,000 Soviet prisoners of war, and tens of thousands of people of diverse nationalities.[5] Those not killed in the gas chambers died of starvation, forced labor, lack of disease control, individual executions, and medical experiments.[6] Denis Avey, recently named a British Holocaust hero by the government of Britain, had escaped and spoke of conditions inside the camps.[7]
    • On January 27, 1945, Auschwitz was liberated by Soviet troops, a day commemorated around the world as International Holocaust Remembrance Day. In 1947, Poland founded a museum on the site of Auschwitz I and II, which by 1994 had seen 22 million visitors—700,000 annually—pass through the iron gates crowned with the infamous motto, Arbeit macht frei ("work makes you free").
  130. cold war
    a state of political conflict using means short of armed warfare
  131. partition of germany
    • division of Germany into three occupied zones
    • berlin blockade The blockade was a Soviet attempt to starve out the allies in Berlin in order to gain supremacy. The blockade was a high point in the Cold War, and it led to the Berlin Airlift.
  132. nikita khrushchev
    Soviet statesman and premier who denounced stalin (1894-1971)
  133. nuclear arms race
    the Cold War competition between superpowers to develop more powerful and greater numbers of nuclear weapons
  134. third world
    underdeveloped and developing countries of Asia and Africa and Latin America collectively
  135. domino theory
    the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control
  136. chiang kai shek nanjing republic
    National People's Party, is a political party of the Republic of China, Chiang Kai-shek assumes leadership
  137. fidel castor and cuban revolution
    by a Spanish-nationalized Cuban man named Cástor Vispo , and was aired ... program production, as a result of the revolution headed by Fidel Castro
  138. emperor taisho
    was the 123rd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 30 July 1912, until his death in 1926.
  139. bay of pigs
    In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
  140. long march
    The 6,000-mile (9,600-kilometer) flight of Chinese Communists from southeastern to northwestern China. The Communists, led by Mao Zedong, were pursued by the Chinese army under orders from Chiang Kai-shek. (789)
  141. brezhnev doctrine
    • Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they saw the need.
    • Japanese invasion of Manchuria japan seized manchuria because japanese believed that japans empire should be equal to the size of the western powers empire
  142. sino soviet split
    The Sino-Soviet split was the gradual worsening of relations between the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) during the Cold War.
  143. emperor hirohito
    • emperor of Japan during WWII. his people viewed him as a god
    • detente the easing of tensions or strained relations (especially between nations)
    • existentialism is a term applied to the work of a number of 19th- and 20th-century philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,[1][2] generally held that the focus of philosophical thought should be to deal with the conditions of existence of the individual person and their emotions, actions, responsibilities, and thoughts.[3][4] The early 19th century philosopher Søren Kierkegaard, posthumously regarded as the father of existentialism,[5][6] maintained that the individual is solely responsible for giving their own life meaning and living that life passionately and sincerely,[7][8] in spite of many existential obstacles and distractions including despair, angst, absurdity, alienation, and boredom.[9]
    • Subsequent existential philosophers retain the emphasis on the individual, but differ, in varying degrees, on how one achieves and what constitutes a fulfilling life, what obstacles must be overcome, and what external and internal factors are involved, including the potential consequences of the existence[10][11] or non-existence of God.[12][13] Many existentialists have also regarded traditional systematic or academic philosophy, in both style and content, as too abstract and remote from concrete human experience.[14][15] Existentialism became fashionable in the post-World War years as a way to reassert the importance of human individuality and freedom
  144. abstract and surrealist art
    • where there is little or no effort to represent an object or scene in realistic terms
    • rocketry and space exploration The Soviet space program refers to the rocketry and space exploration programs conducted by the Soviet Union (USSR) from the 1930s
    • stream of consciousness a literary genre that reveals a character's thoughts and feeling as they develop by means of a long soliloquy
    • quantum physics the branch of physics based on quantum theory
    • women's movements, feminism, women's liberation The phrase "Women's Liberation" was first used in the United States in 1964 and first appeared in print in 1966.[30][31] By 1968, although the term Women's Liberation Front appeared in the magazine Ramparts, it was starting to refer to the whole women's movement.[32] Bra-burning also became associated with the movement, though the actual prevalence of bra-burning is debatable.[33] One of the most vocal critics of the women's liberation movement has been the African American feminist and intellectual Gloria Jean Watkins (who uses the pseudonym "bell hooks") who argues that this movement glossed over race and class and thus failed to address "the issues that divided women." She highlighted the lack of minority voices in the women's movement in her book Feminist theory from margin to center (1984)
    • albert einstein physicist born in Germany who formulated the special theory of relativity and the general theory of relativity
  145. consumerism
    a movement advocating greater protection of the interests of consumers
  146. G-8 summit
    • is a forum, created by France in 1975, for governments of six countries in the world: France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In 1976, Canada joined the group (thus creating the G7). In becoming the G8, the group added Russia in 1997. In addition, the European Union is represented within the G8, but cannot host or chair.[1] "G8" can refer to the member states or to the annual summit meeting of the G8 heads of government. The former term, G6, is now frequently applied to the six most populous countries within the European Union. G8 ministers also meet throughout the year, such as the G7/8 finance ministers (who meet four times a year), G8 foreign ministers, or G8 environment ministers.
    • Each calendar year, the responsibility of hosting the G8 rotates through the member states in the following order: France, United States, United Kingdom, Russia, Germany, Japan, Italy, and Canada. The holder of the presidency sets the agenda, hosts the summit for that year, and determines which ministerial meetings will take place. Lately, both France and the United Kingdom have expressed a desire to expand the group to include five developing countries, referred to as the Outreach Five (O5) or the Plus Five: Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa. These countries have participated as guests in previous meetings, which are sometimes called G8+5.
    • With the G-20 major economies growing in stature since the 2008 Washington summit, world leaders from the group announced at their Pittsburgh summit on September 25, 2009, that the group will replace the G8 as the main economic council of wealthy nations
    • lo hsun one of the major Chinese writers of the 20th century
  147. chinua achebe
    Things Fall Apart
  148. diego rivera
    socialist Mexican painter of murals (1886-1957)
  149. modern versus postmodern culture
    culture contras counterrevolutionary group in Nicaragua that opposed the Sandinistas
  150. global warning
    the hypothesized rise in Earth's average temperature from excess carbon dioxide
  151. che guevera
    Che y Castro empezaron un revolucion de Cuba porque Batista estuve un dictador y el no trato los cubanos buenos. 2. Ellos ganaron y los cubanos estuvieron libre. 3. Despues Che desaparecio y secretamente ir a Bolivia. El cambio su nombre y probo empezar un revolucion de Bolivia. 4. Pero los Bolivianos ganaron (y los Estados Unidos ayudo Bolivia.) Ellos encontraron Che y mataron el.
  152. green movement
    Political movement and party that arose in several western European nations in the 1970's that opposed unfettered free market economies and unchecked industrial pollution
  153. augusto pinochet
    He was the Chilean dictator who was responsible for instituting the reforms set out by the Chicago Boys. His leadership was backed by the US and was carried out through a coup against a democratically elected, leftist leader. At the behest of the advice given by the group, Pinochet forcefully transformed the Chilean economy into one of the freest market economies that the world had even seen. Pinochet made sure to employ the military to protect the Chicago Boys and ensure that no outside influence would taint their ideology.
  154. environmentalism
    the activity of protecting the environemnt from pollution or destruction
  155. deng xiaoping
    Chinese communist statesman (1904-1997)
  156. hutu tutsi conflict
    In Burundi, a campaign of genocide was conducted against Hutu population in 1972 and up to 200,000 Hutus died In 1993
  157. Kim II sung
    led North Korean Communists
  158. yugoslav wars
    a series of violent conflicts fought in the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia between 1991 and 1995 (with wars and ensuing infighting still continuing within the region
  159. liberal democrats
    created in the late 1800s. The last prime minister was in the 1920s. Historically, this was the opposition party to the conservatives. The Conservatives were on the right center and the liberals were pure center. Politically, not much of a difference between the two, could live with each of them. The Liberals have declined throughout the 20th century, down to only holding 20 seats. They are around 50-55 seats today.
  160. nationalist extremism
    the extreme pride for your nation. Extreme and upmost dedication for your country, or nation.
  161. postwar economic recovery of japan
    historical phenomenon of Japan's record period of economic growth following World War II
  162. vietnam war
    a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States
  163. gulf war
    a dispute over control of the waterway between Iraq and Iran broke out into open fighting in 1980 and continued until 1988, when they accepted a UN cease-fire resolution
  164. nuclear non proliferation treaty
    treaty that made signers agree not to develop nuclear weapons or to stop the proliferation or spread of nuclear weapons
  165. nuclear club
    the nations possessing nuclear weapons
  166. ho chi minh
    Vietnamese communist statesman who fought the Japanese in World War II and the French until 1954 and South vietnam until 1975 (1890-1969)
  167. hidiki tojo
    • was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army, member and succeeding leader of the Taisei Yokusankai and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from 18 October 1941 to 22 July 1944
    • rape of nanking was a six-week period following the Japanese capture of the city of Nanjing (Nanking), the former capital of the Republic of China, on December 13, 1937. During this period, hundreds of thousands of civilians were murdered and 20,000-80,000 women were raped [1] by soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army.[2][3][4] The massacre remains a contentious political issue, as various aspects of it have been disputed by some historical revisionists and Japanese nationalists,[3] who have claimed that the massacre has been either exaggerated or wholly fabricated for propaganda purposes. As a result of the nationalist efforts to deny or rationalize the war crimes, the controversy created surrounding the massacre remains a stumbling block in Sino-Japanese relations, as well as Japanese relations with other Asia-Pacific nations such as South Korea and the Philippines.
    • Estimates of the death toll vary widely. Aside from the absence of accurate, comprehensive records of the killings, other contributors to the wide variance in estimates of the death toll include differences in definition of the geographical area, time period and nature of the killings to be counted. The Nanking Massacre can be defined narrowly to count only those killings happening within the Nanking Safety Zone, more broadly to include killings in the immediate environs of Nanking, or even more broadly to include the six counties around Nanking, known as the Nanking Special Municipality. Similarly, the time period of the massacre can be limited to the six weeks following the fall of Nanking or it can be defined more broadly to include killings from the time the Japanese Army entered Jiangsu province in mid-November until late March 1938. Variations in estimates based on the nature of the killings revolve around the question of whether the killings of captured Chinese soldiers and suspected guerrillas constit
    • uted legitimate executions.
    • The International Military Tribunal of the Far East estimates 260,000 casualties; China's official estimate is 300,000 casualties, based on the evaluation of the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal. Japanese historians estimate a lower death toll, in the vicinity of 100,000-200,000. Some claim the existence of only 40,000 deaths or even deny that a widespread, systematic massacre occurred at all, claiming that any deaths were either justified militarily, accidental or isolated incidents of unauthorized atrocities. These negationists claim that the characterization of the incident as a large-scale, systematic massacre was fabricated for the purpose of political propaganda.[5][6]
    • While the Japanese government has acknowledged the acts of cruelty and violence committed by the Imperial Japanese Army after the fall of Nanking,[7] some Japanese officials have argued that the death toll was military in nature and that no such crimes ever occurred. Denial of the massacre (and a divergent array of revisionist accounts of the killings) has become a staple of Japanese nationalism.[8] In Japan, public opinion of the massacres varies, and few deny the occurrence of the massacre outright.[8] Nonetheless, recurring attempts by negationists to promote a revisionist history of the incident have created controversy that periodically reverberates in the international media, particularly in China, South Korea, and other East Asian nations
  168. amritsar massacre
    To protest the Rowlatt Act, Indians gathered in Amritsar, where British troops fired on the crowd killing several hundred. This sparked further protests
  169. jawaharlal nehru
    Indian statesman and leader with Gandhi in the struggle for home rule
  170. international revolutionary party
    is a Mexican political party that wielded power in the country—under a succession of names—for more than 70 years.
  171. juan and eva peron
    was the second wife of President Juan Perón (1895-1974) and served as the First Lady of Argentina from 1946 until her death in 1952.
  172. occupation of rhineland 1936
    Hitler sends troops into Rhineland Forbidden by Treaty of Versailles France/Britain do not act (avoid conflict)
  173. lebensraum
    space sought for occupation by a nation whose population is expanding
  174. munich conference
    1938 conference at which European leaders attempted to appease Hitler by turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchange for promise that Germany would not expand Germany's territory any further.
  175. algerian war of independence
    a conflict between France and Algerian independence movements from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeria gaining its independence from France
  176. african national congress
    An organization dedicated to obtaining equal voting and civil rights for black inhabitants of South Africa. Founded in 1912 as the South African Native National Congress, it changed its name in 1923. Eventually brought equality (809)
  177. desmond tutu
    South African prelate and leader of the antiapartheid struggle (born in 1931)
  178. aids/hiv epidemic
    Taiwan s epidemic of HIV/AIDS began with the first case reported in December 1984 , AIDS Prevention and Research Center
  179. indira gandhi
    • daughter of Nehru who served as prime minister of India from 1966 to 1977 (1917-1984)
    • suharto Indonesian statesman who seized power from Sukarno in 1967 (born in 1921)
  180. boris yeltsin
    President of the Russian Republic in 1991. Helped end the USSR and force Gorbachev to resign.
  181. collapse of the soviet union
    Communism collapsed in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe during 1989 - 1991; the Cold War also ended during
  182. chernobyl
    a city in north central Ukraine
  183. biotechnology
    DNA and genetics all dealing w/ science
  184. saddam hussein
    Iraqi leader who waged war against Iran
  185. ayatollah khomeini
    Iranian religious leader of the Shiites
  186. iranian revolution
    Mullahs (religious leaders) overthrow the US backed Shah and establish a theocracy (religious government) that hated the US
  187. european coal and steel community
    international organization to control and integrate all European coal and steel production. Consisted of West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, and France. Number 1 goal to be so close together economically that war against them impossible. "The six".
  188. charles de gaulle
    French general and statesman who became very popular during World War II as the leader of the Free French forces in exile (1890-1970)
  189. helmut kohl
    chancellor of east germany. In favor of unifications.
  190. decolonization
    the action of changing from colonial to independent status
  191. camp david accords
    A peace treaty between Israel and Egypt where Egypt agreed to recognize the nation state of Israel
  192. intifada
    an uprising by Palestinian Arabs (in both the Gaza Strip and the West Bank) against Israel in the late 1980s and again in 2000
  193. iranian revolution
    leader was khomeini. people were upset because their leader (the shah) was not chosen by them and back up by europe and the US. they believed their resources were being abused and wanted change. revolution was intended to turn iran into aw purely islamic state. new government followed the sharia and all western culture was banned.
  194. yasser arafat
    palestine liberation organization The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO ... Leadership by Yasser Arafat: The resounding defeat of Syria, Jordan and Egypt in the Six Day War
  195. Anschluss
    union of Austria and Germany
  196. Russification
    Policy imposing Russian customs and traditions on other people.
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