What are the 3 main structures of the Limbic System?
- 1. Amygdala (A)
- 2. Anterior Cingulate (AC)
- 3. Orbital Frontal Cortex (OFC)
T/F: The hippocampus is part of the limbic system
FALSE- but Anterior Cingulate plays an important role.
What is the most common cause of damage to OFC
- Traumatic Brain Injury
- Tumor, stroke
If you see a patient with:
• emotional dysregulation
• disturbed social behavior
• poor decision making
What part of the brain is most likely damaged?
How does OFC damage differ from sociopathy?
They actually feel remorse/guilt
What age is moral behavior acquired?
before 3 /yo
What does the amygdala control?
What does the Anterior Cingulate control?
- Rational cognitive fxns
Which part of the brain controls fear-response?
The Anterior Cingulate cortex controls
Interplay of Cognition and Emotion
What kind of syndrome would a patient acquire if both temporal lobes were lesioned?
Kluver Bucy Syndrome including Amygdala
What symptoms arise if someone has Kluver Bucy syndrome?
- Decrease fear-response
- Loss of social position
- Hypersexual but decrease in social contact
If someone has trouble maintaining emotional memory, where would the lesioned area be?
If a patient is hyperoral and experiences psychic blindness, where will the damage most likely be?
Inferior temporal lobe
Herpes simplex , what part(s) of the brain is damaged?
Bilateral Temporal lobe and amygdala
What part of the brain controls social(hot) cognition?
What does the Orbito Frontal area of the frontal lobe do?
controls social, emotional behavior, and interaction with others
What are the 3 subdivisions of the Frontal lobe?
- Lateral Frontal Cortex- Control Cogntion (Cold)
- Orbital Frontal Cortex- Control Social (Hot)
- Medial Prefrontal Cortex- interplay of Lateral + Orbital (acts as MEDIATOR)
Because there is extesnive bi-lateral connections between Orbital Frontal and Lateral Frontal cortices, when you're angry, which part of the brain should cool down before you make a decision?
Orbitofrontal- its considered HOT cognition.
What did Luria say about the lateral prefrontal cortex?
Frontal lobes are essential for organizing intellectual activity as a whole, programming the intellectual act, and checking its performance.
What does myelin development support?
- Abstract thinking involves organzing thoughts
- Frontal lopbes are needed for planning thoughts + reasoning (monitoring and controlling thoughts)
What part of the brain is the last to develop and what age does ?
Frontal lobe-done developing by age 30
What ages are the most vulnerable to frontal lobe change?
4-6 y/o and 11-14y/o
T/F: Amygdala connects to OFC
Coup-Contracoup damage occurs at what site(s) of the brain?
Ethnoid and sphenoid ridge
Phineas gage's skull shows damage to which part(s) of the brain?
Amygdala and OFC