Teaching Strength Training NSCA

  1. what are the smallest contractile unit of a muscle
  2. what is another name of a muscle cell
    muscle fiber
  3. What is the name of the connective tissues that are bundled and can stretch or recoil?
  4. eccentric contraction followed by a rapid concentric shortening of the muscle, as in plyometrics is called?
    stretch-shortening cycle
  5. what is the sliding filament theory
    myosin is stationary, cross bridges pull actin together and shortens sarcomere
  6. what muscle fibers are used for endurance and have lower contractile force capacity
    type I, slow twitch
  7. what muscle fibers uses lots of mitrochondria
    slow twitch
  8. what muscle fibers are anaerobic
    type II Fast twitch
  9. Fiber types do not change, but will change in the direction of what?
    increasing oxidative capacity
  10. what makes up a motor unit
    motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it innervates
  11. Motor units are homogeneous - either all type I or all type II? T or F
  12. how many skeletal muscles in the body
    over 600
  13. What muscles that are the primary movers?
  14. muscles that assist the movement
  15. What are the muscles that oppose the movement?
  16. site where the muscle is connected, generally closest to the core
  17. muscle conntected to a tendon that spans the joint on which the muscle functions
  18. muscle contraction needs what kind of energy
  19. when does muscle contraction relax?
    when impulse ends
  20. the force of contraction increases as more sarcomers are arranged (how)
    parallel to each orther (wider muscles)
  21. the angle between muscle fiber orientation and direction in which overall force is directed during contraction

    greater the pennation the greater the force
  22. senses high tension and inhibits contraction (agonist) and excites antagonist
    golgi tendon
  23. motor units are recurited from smaller to larger based on force demands on the muscle
    size principle

    low-threshold first (type I) recruitment is rapid
  24. If only low resistance is used (12-15 reps), then
    largest motor units will not be recruited and won't benefit
  25. To maximize strength gains from a resistance training program what should be used to stimulate adaptation in the largest motor units
    high resistance (1-5 RM)
  26. When the motor unit reaches threshold level for activation, the motor unit is fully activated
    all or none law

    • all muscle fibers contract maximally
    • -indiv. motor units w/in muscle only not whole muscles (like biceps)
  27. Found within the muscle fibers and sense when muscle is being stretched and causes muscle to reflexively contract
    muscle spindle

    monitors the lengthening and prevents overstretching - but only during fast stretches
  28. What determines the number of motor units recruited
  29. with high velosity and power moves, what fibers are recruited first
    type II
  30. what principle describes the order of recruitment ensures type I (low threshold) motor units are recruited first, then higher threshold motor units are recruited to produce higher levels of force or power
    size principle
  31. what do you have to do to recruit type II fibers
    heavy loading or high power output
  32. force development is dependent on what 4 things
    • number
    • size
    • type of fibers
    • training program
  33. what are the 2 types of isotonic work
    concentric contraction and ecentric contraction
  34. muscle force is greater than resistance, muscle shortens and produces force
    concentric conraction
  35. muscle force is less than resistance and muscle lengthen and produces force
    eccentric contration
  36. whe the force produced equals the resistance

    static action (stabilizers)
  37. the force a muscle can develop varies through the range of motion
    strength curve

    sticking point is the point of lowest strength development
  38. what gives dynamic constant resistance, requires more balance and stabilization
    free weights
  39. what gives dynamic variable resistance
    stack plate machines

    movement pattern is fixed by the machine
  40. the resistance is related to an ascending strength curve, greater force over the range of motion
  41. velosity of movement is constant, computer controlled and load is determined by force person produces
  42. no dependency on on gravity, trains at any speed with a consistent concentric and eccentric contraction
    pnematic resistance - keiser
  43. concentric contraction only, push out and pull in, no eccentric loading, less efficient
    hydaulic resistance

    can do agonist and antagonist on same machine
  44. there is an optimal length at which muscle fibers can generate maximal force; changes throughout the movement
    length-tension (force) curve
  45. velocity of movment increases, the force a muscle can produce concentrically decreases
    force-velocity curve
  46. which force is greater eccentric, concentric of isometric
    eccentric force
  47. the larger the muscle the greater its _____
  48. increase in muscle size is due to
  49. how does hypertrophy occur
    resistance training and nutrition (enough stimulus)
  50. Name 4 benefits of strength training?
    • increase muscle size
    • decrease body fat
    • increase bone density
    • increase ligament and tendon strength
    • improved performance
  51. what occurs the first few weeks of strength training
    increase in strength but not muscle size; motor pathways getting smarter
  52. what does NSCA recommend for muscle stimulus
    • 70-85% of 1RM
    • 8-12 reps
    • 3-4 sets
    • 1-2 minues rest (increases stress-increased hormone release)
  53. what energy is used in muscular contraction
  54. ATP-CP lasts how long and where is it stored
    • 6-10 seconds
    • in the muscle
  55. Energy system that is anaerobic, uses glucose, has by-product of lactic acid and lasts 6-10 seconds
    anaerobic glycolosis
  56. what energy system is found in the mitrochondria, uses oxygen, low intensity, longer duration, 3+ minutes
    oxidative metabolism
  57. hormone that helps in force production
  58. hormone that stimulate protein synthesis
  59. hormone that stimulates protein synthesis
    growth hormone
  60. how can you maximize the effects of hormones on muscle contraction
    • 3-4 sets
    • 80+ % of RM
    • 6-12 reps
    • shorter rest
    • target larger muscles
  61. muscle damage includes: disruption of sarcomere and membranes - swelling, soreness, comes from ________ and _____ contractions
    concentric and eccentric
  62. always wanted to be muscle cells, are activated by hormones and increase in number and become part of muscle cell to increase cell nuclei
    satellite cells
  63. muscles trained will adapt and change in response to the program
  64. stress (alarm) stage, resistance stage (adaptation), and the exhaustion stage (overtraining) are all part of what
    general adaptation syndrome
  65. specific adaptations to imposed demands, adaptation is specific to the workout
    SAID principle
  66. how do you determine your intensity or resistance
    determine RM and choose a training target
  67. What are the 5 acute training variables
    • choice of exercises
    • order performed
    • intensity
    • volume (sets x reps x weight)
    • rest periods
  68. gradually increase the amount of physical stress to continually stimulate adaptations
  69. decreasing volume and increasing intensity closer to performance
  70. gradual increases in the load or volume lifted from week to week within a microcycle
    progressive overload (linear periodization)
  71. problem with linear periodization
    tendency to plateau
  72. calls for more frequent changes to volume and intensity, leading to greater gains
    nonlinear periodization
  73. small number of training sessions in which the goal is the same, 1-2 weeks in length is called a
  74. a run of mesocycles, a phase is called
  75. all four phases of the classic model is called
  76. type of training protocol that has 8-12 stations, repeat 1-3 times, little or no rest, some cardiorespiratory benefit
    circuit training
  77. type of training protocol that has limited time commitment, 8-12 reps, 1 set to failure
    one-set program or HIT (high intensity training)

    Not as effective as periodization
  78. type of training protocol that has 2-3 warm up sets of increasing resistance followed by several work sets at the same resistance is what kind of protocol
    multiple-set system
  79. type of training protocol that has 20-60 seconds per repetition, isolated joint exercises, 1-2 sets
    super slow system
  80. type of training protocol that has gradual increase in resistance and decrease in repetitions with each set to top (low reps, high resistance), then decrease in resistance and increase reps back to start, 2-3 exercises per workout
    pyramid or triangle routine
  81. type of training protocol that has alternating 2 exercises for 2 different target muscles (agonist, antagonist, different joints or body area), shorter rest
    super setting
  82. type of training protocol that has lowering phase, more weight than you can do in the concentric phase
    negative resistance training
  83. type of training protocol that has same body part exercises during asingle training session, alternate body parts on different days, 6 days a week, higher intensity
    split routine system
  84. type of training protocol that has set to exhaustion, then training partner assists you by lifting resistance to get 3-4 post fatique reps
    force repetitin system
  85. type of training protocol that has training at sticking point of joint angle, should be used in conjunction of full ROM exercises
    functional isometrics
  86. type of training protocol that has 1 RM for multiple reps with a 10-15 sec rest between reps, repeat 4-5 times
    rest-pause system
  87. type of training protocol that has train the weakest muscles first
    priority system
  88. type of training protocol that has establish goals and develop periodized scheme, then add secondary objectives to the workout
    complex, concurrent, contrast or cross-training
  89. training modality where load does not change during the course of the exercise
    constant external resistance

    medballs, dumbbells, barbells
  90. training modality where there is a change in the load somewhere in the range of motion
    variable resistance

    machines, cable systems, tubing
  91. training modality where isometric training is not usually functional, may be used to help in the area of a sticking point
    static resistance
  92. training modality where train speed and power, eccentric-isometric-ballistic concentric actions, bounding, leaping and med-ball activities
    plyometric training
  93. what would be the goal of a training program with
    85% 1RM
    low reps, long rests
    split routine2-3 days a week
    muscular strength
  94. what would be the goal if train
    70-85% 1RM
    8-12 reps, 1-3 sets,
    1-2 min rest
    single & muti joint 1-3x per week
  95. what would be the goal if train
    30-60% of 1RM
    3-5 reps not to failure
    1-2 min rest
    velocity of movement important
    muscular power
  96. what would be the goal if train
    lighter loads 15-25 reps
    1-2 min rest for higher reps
    lest rest for moderate reps
    each muscle grou worked 1-3 times/week
    local muscle endurance
  97. how many kcal per pound
  98. what occurs when energy demands are adequate to support stimulus for muscle growth?
    protein synthesis
  99. what hormone is secreted by the pituitary glad due to exercise, sleep, and stress
    growth hormone
  100. how long is growth hormone elevated after exercise
    30 minutes
  101. hormone that regulates insulin metabolis, stimulates the growth of tissues and assists with anabolic effect of growth hormone
    insulin-like growth factor
  102. anabolic and androgenic hormone that feeding decreases circulating levels
  103. hormone responsible for fat deposition and protects against skeltal musckle damage
  104. hormone increased during acute bout of resistance exercise
  105. what percentage of the muscle is made up of water ____ and protein ____?
    70% water and 11% protein
  106. what are the building blocks of protein?
    amino acids
  107. these amino acids cannot be produced by the body and must be consumed in the form of food?
  108. what contains all the essential amino acids
    complete protein (animal sources)
  109. mostly vegetable and grain sources, don't have all the amino acids
    incomplete protein
  110. how many Kcal/gm in protein
  111. 4 hours after training protein synthesis is __% greater, and ___% greater in the 24 hours immediately after
    • 50%
    • 109%
  112. what taken directly directly before or after training increases synthesis
    amino acids and carbohydrates
  113. for the general population, how many grams of protein per kg of body weight
  114. what is the kcal/gm for carbohydrates
  115. how much of carbohydrate stores are depleted after resistance training
  116. how soon after working out should protein and carbs be ingested
    30 minutes and every 30 minutes within first 4 hours

    (1.2gms per body weight)
  117. what are the daily carb requirements for general population
    5-6 gms per lb of body weight
  118. how many kcal/gm is fat
    9 kcal/gm
  119. saturated fats come from
    animal products
  120. trans fats come from
    pre-packaged food
  121. plant source that improve blood lipid profiles are what kind of fat
  122. sunflower, corn and soybean oils come form what kind of fat?
  123. canola, peanut and olive oils come from what source
  124. how much of the diet should be made up of fat

    (less than 10% saturated fats)
  125. total amount of water in the body
  126. how much water should be consumed 1 hour before, during and after training
    8-16 oz
  127. organic substances that do not contain energy but are used in energy metabolism and tissue formation
  128. fat soluble vitamins are
    A, D, E, K
  129. inorganic substances from plant and animal food we eat critical to metabolic processes
  130. suplement that is an amino acid and plays a role in ATP metabolism
  131. supplement that maintains muscle and preserve glycogen, can decrease in reductions of strength and power in overreaching
    branched-chain amino acids

    (dairy, meat, whey and eggs)
  132. name some of the things that water does for the body
    • detoxifies
    • regulates body temp
    • helps metabolism
    • protects & moisturizes joints
  133. supplement that spares muscle glycogen, delays fatigue by reducing lactate
Card Set
Teaching Strength Training NSCA
Ch 1-4 of Strength Training SNCA by Lee Brown