endocrine system

  1. What is the endocrine system?
    includes all the glands of the body that secrete horomes directly into the blood stream
  2. What does the endocrine system not contain?
  3. What are hormones?
    chemical stimulants that control changes in the body; only released to stimulate a chemical reaction
  4. What are endocrine glands studied by?
  5. What do hormones affect?
    specific tissues called target tissues
  6. What do endocrine organs consist of?
    endocrine cells (PPTPA)--pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal gland
  7. What are the following perform functions in other systems asides from endocrine?
    PTTOH-pancreas, thymus, testes, ovaries, hypothalamus
  8. What do endocrine glands have a high supply of?
    blood and lymph vessels
  9. What do amino acid-based hormones contain?
    amino acids or small proteins as part of their structure
  10. What are steroids?
    hormones that contain a cholesterol group as part of its structure
  11. What takes place when receptor binding occurs?
    a program response/reaction takes place
  12. What are tropic hormones?
    secreted by an endocrine gland to stimulate activity of another endocrine gland
  13. What is the control of hormone secretion which an endocrine gland releases hormones?
    Humoral stimuli (glands responds to chemical changes in body such as changing levels or ions or nutrients in body)

    neural stimuli (some glands are signaled by nervous system-sympathetic nerves to release hormones in order to induce physiological changes),

    Hormonal stimuli (some endocrine glands are controlled by other endocrine glands and thus respond to hormones),

    feedback loops (hormone levels are also controlled by feedback loops that either stimulate or halt production of hormone)
  14. What is location of the pituitary gland?
    within the cranium inferior to brain sitting on hypophyseal fossa of sella turcica (sphenoid bone) connecting to hypothalumus through infundibulum
  15. What are the 2 types of pituitary gland?
    anterior pituitary gland (adenohypophysis) and posterior pituitary gland (neurohyphophysis)
  16. What are the hormones that adenohypophysis release?
    PSMAGTFL-Prolactin, Somatotropic hormone (SH), Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH), Adrenocorcictropic hormone (ACTH), Growth Hormone (GH), Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Leutinizing hormone (LH)
  17. what is growth hormone (GH)?
    signals growth of the body
  18. What is somatotropic hormone (SH)?
    signals growth of the body
  19. What is prolactin?
    stimulates breast tissue to produce milk
  20. What is thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)?
    stimulates thyroid gland to secrete hormones that influence metabolism
  21. What is adrenocorcicotropic hormone (ACTH)?
    stimulates adrenal gland to signal its hormones that help us deal with stress
  22. What is melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)?
    stimulates melanocytes of epidermis to produce more melanin, thus darkening the skin
  23. What is follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)?
    acts on testes or ovaries stimulating maturation of egg/sperm & induces scretion of sex hormones
  24. What is leutinizing hormone (LH)?
    during menstrual cycle it signals ovulation
  25. What is the function of neurohyphophysis?
    composed of neurons; stores those produced by hypothalamus & releases them when it receives a neural impulse
  26. What are the hormones that neurohyphophysis release?
    AO-Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) & Oxytocin
  27. What is Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)?
    stimulates collecting tubules of kidney to concentrate the urine in order to reduce water loss
  28. What is Oxytocin?
    induces contractions of smooth muscle of sexual organs, such when a mother experiences contractions of uterus during labor
  29. What is the location of the thyroid gland?
    just inferior to larynx
  30. What is the function of thyroid gland?
    releases thyroid hormones and calcitonin
  31. What are the hormones of the thyroid gland?
    thyroid homone and calcitonin
  32. What is thyroid hormone?
    T3 & T4, amino acid based hormones that contain iodine, main function is to increase metabolic rate
  33. What is calcitonin?
    reduces excessive levels of calcium ions in blood by slowing down osteoclast activity, actively secreted during childhood
  34. What is the function and location of parathyroid glands?
    lies posterior to thyroid gland and releasess PTH (parathyroid hormone)
  35. WHat is Parathyroid hormone (PTH)?
    has opposite effect of calcitonin; increases calcium ion levels in blood by either activating osteoclast, stimulating kidney to reabsorb more calcium, or activation vitamin D production for calcium to be absorbed from food.
  36. What is the function and location of adrenal (suprarenal) gland?
    2 glands located superiorly to kidney

    2 different glands with one structure (adrenal medulla & adrenal cortex)
  37. What is adrenal medulla?
    releases adrenaline or epiphrine to assist in "fight or flight" response
  38. What is adrenal cortext?
    secretes steroids called corticosteroids; has minralocorticoid and glucocorticoids
  39. What is minralocorticoid?
    secreted in response to a decrease in blood volume or blood pressure stimulating kidneys to reabsorb more water or sodium
  40. What is glucocorticoids?
    include cortisol
  41. What can the minralcorticoid & glucocorticoids do?
    these hormones keep blood glucose levels high to maintain brain activity during stressful situations & can direct lymphocytes, or decrease inflammation
  42. What is the location of the pineal gland, controlled by, and the function?
    located in the brain, controlled by hypothalamus, composed of endocrine cells that secrete melatonin which regulates internal body clocks inducing sleep
  43. What is the pancreas location, function, and released?
    located in abdominal cavity, contains endocrine cells called islets of langerhans, release insulin
  44. What is insulin?
    stimulates absorption of glucose by tissue cells when blood glucose levels are high & also releases hlucagon that stimulates liver to release sugar into blood when blood glucose levels are low
  45. What is thymus location and function?
    located in lower neck, anterior thorax, & posterior to sternum. Function: secretes amino acid based hormones called thymic hormones like thymopoeitin & thymosin that stimulates t-lymphocytes to become immunocompetent
  46. What is gonads function and release?
    testes and overies are organs that secret steroid sex hormones; androgens are released
  47. What are androgens?
    change into testosterone, estrogen, & progesterone maintaining primary & secondary sex characteristics & cells involved in reproduction
  48. What does the heart have in the atria and what does it stimulate?
    heart has sensory cells in atria that stimulate kidneys to produce more urine containing salt
  49. What does the GI tract release and affect?
    GI tract has scattered cells that release amino acid/peptide hormones chemically similar to neurotransmitters & affect functions related to regulating digestion, blood chemistry, & blood flow
  50. When is the placenta produced and what does it secrete?
    only when conception occurs & secretes hormones that prevent uterus from getting rid of nutrient layer to which it is attached
  51. What are the other steroid hormones that placenta produce?
    EPCH-estrogen, progesterone, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), and human chorionic gondotropin (HCG)
Card Set
endocrine system
endocrine system