lymphatic/immune system

  1. What does the lymphatic system involve
    a set of vessels that transports tissue fluid back into the blood stream & a set of organs that are involved in immune system
  2. What are lymph vessels?
    collect lymph tissue fluid arising from fluid that has leaked from capillaries (proteins also leak & are returned to blood stream by lymph vessels)
  3. What does the immune system also collect?
    lipids from digestive tract involved in exposing pathogens to immune system
  4. What are lymph capillaries?
    one cell layer thick made up of endothelial cells permeable to tissue fluid, proteins, bacteria, & viruses
  5. What are lacteals?
    lymph capillaries in small intestine permeable to lipids
  6. What are lymphatic collecting vessels?
    these vessels connect to capillaries & carry fluid away
  7. What are lymph nodes?
    organs along lymphatic collecting vessels acumulating the pathogens carried by lymph (area highly concentrated with lymphocytes ready to activate an immune response)
  8. What are lymph trunks?
    a conversion of lymphatic collection vessels resulting in vessel of larger diameter draining large areas of the body.
  9. What are the five major locations of lymph trunks?
    lumbar trunks, intestinal trunks, bronchomediastinal trunks, subclavian trunks, jugular trunks
  10. What are lymph ducts?
    larger vessel into which lymph trunks empty
  11. Where is the thoracic duct found?
    in everyone but only some people have right lymphatic duct that empties into neck veins
  12. Where does the thoracic duct empty?
    into left internal jugular veins & left subclavian veins
  13. What may be the first response to infectious organisms entering the body within lymphocytes & other cells of immune system?
  14. The cells involved in an immune response are what?
    macrophages & lymphocytes including T & B cells
  15. What give rise to lymphocytes?
    lymphoid stem cell in bone marrow
  16. Where do lymphocytes mature and where do they travel?
    in the thymus (T-Cell) or bone marrow (B-cell) and travel through body until they encounter an antigen once they mature
  17. What is activated and sends signals to activate lymphocytes?
    t-helper cell is activated once presented with antigen & sends signals to activate other T-cells and B-cells
  18. What happens to the lymphocytes (the cells) when activated?
    once activated, the cells produce effector cells that fight pathogen & memory cells
  19. What are effector cells?
    fight pathogen & memory cells
  20. What are memory cells?
    guard against subsequent infections
  21. What is a lymphoid tissue?
    designed to collect pathogens for purpose to destroying them (often infected & is located throughout body)
  22. What happens at the site of infection with lymphoid tissue?
    multiple lymphocytes collect to fight infection & memory cells reside
  23. What do lymphoid organs do and what are they?
    easily collect pathogens

    lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils, and aggregated lymphoid follicles & appendix
  24. What are lymph nodes
    organs that filter lymph fluid before it has an opportunity to enter back into blood vessels
  25. What is the spleen?
    largest lymphoid organ almost the size of the heart designed to remove blood born pathogens & aged/damaged RBCs & also stores platelets
  26. What are the 2 areas of the spleen?
    areas indentified as white (pymphoid tissue) and red pulp (vacular tissue).
  27. What is the thymus?
    site to T-cell development & also releases hormones
  28. What is thymus gradually replaced by as one ages?
    fibrous tissue
  29. What are tonsils?
    simplest lymphoid organs with 4 groups (palatine, lingual, pharyngeal, & tubal)
  30. What are the 4 groups of tonsils that humans have and what do they do
    palatine, lingual, pharyngeal, tubal-gather pathogens entering through nose & mouth
  31. What are aggregated lymphoid follices & appenedix?
    densely packed units of lymphoid tissue forming lymphoid nodules
  32. What does HIV transmitted through?
    bodily secretions such as blood, semen, & viginal secretions.
  33. What happens if the HIV fluid is exposed to air?
    dries, virus dies, & cannot be infectious
  34. What can allow virus entry if one is exposed to an infected body fluid?
    any microscopic tear in the body or via a needle or blood transfusion (rare)
  35. What does the virus target and what happens?
    T-helper cells & destroy them. also affects microglia cells & immune system cells
  36. What are microglia cells?
    brain tissue
  37. What are immune system cells?
    dendritic & macrophages
  38. What are the infection stages?
    1. acuite stage 2 weeks (first infected presels flu-like systems, fever, rash, fatique, heaeache, muscle/joint pain, diarrhea, swollen lymphnodes),

    2. asymptomic period-up to 10 years (no obvious systems, but immune system is silently fighting HIV virus),

    3. AIDS-time varies resulting in death (persons immune system declines & body is invaded by oppertunistic organisms)
  39. What is the fourth leading cause of death world wide?
  40. Where are AIDS most severe spread in?
    Asia, eastern europe, & africa
  41. What % of US is infected that does not know they are?
Card Set
lymphatic/immune system
lymphatic & immune system