blood vessels

  1. What do the blood vessels of the body form?
    closed circulatory system
  2. What do blood vessels have the ability to do?
    constrict or dilate and increase or decrease pressure
  3. What is the job of arteries and veins?
    Arteries carry blood away from heart & veins bring blood towards heart
  4. What is Tunica Intima?
    contains endothelium (simple squamous epithelium)
  5. What is Tunica Media?
    thickest layer composed of smooth muscle arranged in circular sheets & connective tissue. Controlled by sympathetic nervous system. Can have vasoconstriction or vasodilation
  6. What does the sympathetic nervous system control?
    smooth muscle activity
  7. What is vasoconstriction and vasodilation?
    vasoconstriction occurs when smooth muscle contacts decreasing flow of blood

    vasodilation occurs when smooth muscle relaxes, increases diameter & thus the blood flow
  8. What is Tunica externa?
    outer most layer composed of connective tissue designed to protect, stretch, and anchor blood vessels
  9. What is a Lumen?
    cavity in the middle of the blood vessel filled with blood
  10. How does the diameter of the luman change?
    with vasoconstriction or vasodilation & can also be influenced by plaque build up
  11. What happens when the artery gets closer to the heart and branches?
    When artery gets closer to heart, the larger its diameter & the thicker its walls. When artery branches, it becomes smaller in diameter & thinner until it becomes a capillary
  12. what do the arteries have the ability to do and why?
    ability to change blood pressure because they have a thick muscle layer
  13. What are elastic arteries?
    2.5-1cm, largest, closer to heart, thick sheets of elastin in tunica media, able to withstand large fluctuations in blood pressure
  14. What are muscular arteries?
    1cm-0.33mm, distal to elastic arteries, reach organs, their tunica media is thicker in diameter than lumen
  15. What are arterioles?
    0.3mm-1um, smallest diameter, tunicas are considerably thinner but are still innervated to induce vasoconstriction or vasodilation
  16. What do arterioles connect to?
  17. What are capillaries?
    smallest blood vessels (8-10um) forcing RBC to pass by in one after the other in line; where WBC exit the blood stream
  18. What are capillary beds?
    network or capillaries that is connected to a terminal arteriole & postcapillary venule
  19. What are capillary permeability?
    capillaries have thin walles so that molecules can quickly move in and out
  20. Capillaries that have no pores & are not highly permeable are called what?
    continuous capillaries
  21. How does permeability happen?
    dirrect diffusion, intercellular cleft, cytoplasmic vesicles (caveolae), fenestrations
  22. What are continous capillaries?
    Capillaries that have no pores & are not highly permeable
  23. The capillaries that have lowest permeability are what?
    those of the blood brain barrier (only permeable to lipid soluble substances & components such as H20 & CO2
  24. What are Sinusoids?
    wide leaky fenestrated capillaries in areas of extensive change & crossing or large materials
  25. What are veins?
    blood vessels that carry blood from capillaries to the heart
  26. What happens to the veins as they move away from the capillaries?
    increase in diameter
  27. What is the blood pressure in veins?
    less than in arteries & their walls are also thinner than arteries
  28. What are venules?
    8-100um, smallest & thinnest, closer to capillaries, become thicker as they approach the veins
  29. What happens to the venules as they approach the veins?
    become thicker
  30. What are vain valves?
    assist in transport of blood back to heart & prevent back flow
  31. Where are there no valves in the veins and why?
    thoracic & abdominal cavities because they have a layer of smooth muscle
  32. What do normal body movements produce when blood is being returned back to the heart from the veins?
    produce muscle contractions that bring blood back to the heart
  33. What do skeletal muscle contractions force?
    force valves to open & propel blood towards heart
  34. What is vascular anostomoses?
    areas where several blood vessels unite or interconnect & may be arteries or veins
  35. What can Anastomoses provide?
    alternative routes for blood flow
  36. What happens when blood flow blocage is in areas where there are no arterial anastomoses?
    may result in severe tissue damage
  37. What is vasa vasorum?
    tiny arteries, capillaries, & veins in larger blood vessels to provide their own blood supply & nourishment for outer half of wall layers
  38. What is the pulmonary circulation?
    blood vessels that travel from heart to lungs, within the lungs, & back to heart
  39. pulmonary circulation: What do arteries and veins carry?
    arteries carry deoxygenated blood & veins carry oxygenated blood
  40. pulmonary circulation: How does blood from the heart reach the lungs and once the blood is oxynated, what happens?
    via the pulmonary arteries that carries deoxygenated blood

    when oxynated, it is returned to heart via pulmonary veins
  41. What is systemic circulation and what do the arteries and veins carry?
    blood vessels that travel from heart throughout body & back to heart

    arteries carry oxygenated blood & veins carry deoxygenated blood
  42. What is arthrosclerosis?
    hardening of artery due to fatty deposits (artery loses its flexibility)
  43. What is aneurysm?
    widening or out pocketing or an artery or vein increasing changes of vessel rupturing (may result from weaken walls)
  44. What is deep vein thrombosis of lower limb?
    formation of clots in lower legs (clot can detach, travel through body, & cause embolism or stroke)
  45. What is venous disease?
    inadequate drainage of lower limbs due to failure of valves & can possibly causing ulceration
  46. What is microangiopathy of diabetes?
    common long term diabetes mellitus complication
  47. What is arteriovenous malformation?
    congenital condition in which capillaries do not form & arteries connect directly into veins (usually occurs in cerebrum where veins becomes weaken & an aneurysm can occur)
Card Set
blood vessels
veins, arteries, capillaries