Hormones

  1. ADH/aVP
    (AndiDiuretic Hormone/Vasopressin)
    • Secreted by: Hypothalamus
    • Stored/Released by: Posterior Pituitary
    • Target Tissue: Renal Tubule
    • Action: Signals RT to save/reabsorb HOH; signals Hypothalamus you are thirsty.
    • Pathology: Diabetes Insipidus = don't secrete enough ADH.
  2. OXYTOCIN (OT)
    (also called Pitocin)
    • Secreted by: Hypothalamus
    • Stored/Released by: Posterior Pituitary
    • Target Tissue: Uterus (others?)
    • Action: Causes smooth muscle in uterus to contract; aids in parturitions (labor&delivery)
    • Pathology: If hemmoraging occurs during parturition, stimulation of breasts may aid in release of OT to help.
  3. RELEASING HORMONES (FACTORS) OF THE HYPOTHALAMUS
    • SC = somatocrinin
    • TRF = thyrotropin releasing hormone
    • CRF = corticotropin releasing hormone
    • GnRF= gonadotropin releasing hormone
    • PRF = prolactin releasing hormone
  4. INHIBITING HORMONES (FACTORS) OF THE HYPOTHALAMUS
    • SS = somatostatin
    • PIF = prolactin inhibiting hormone
  5. SOMATOTROPIN (ST)
    includes: hCG; hST; bST
    • Secreted by: Anterior Pituitary
    • EXTRA: GH is a STRESS HORMONE
    • Target Tissue: Liver, primarily
    • Action: Stimulates Liver to secrete more hormones(Somatomedins:IGF-1&IGF-2)
    • Pathology: "mad cow", KURU, CJD; Giantism, Pituitary Dwarfism, Achondroplasia, Acromegaly, Simmond's Disease
  6. THYROTROPIN/THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE (TSH)
    • Secreted by: Anterior Pituitary
    • EXTRA: TSH is a PROTEIN
    • Target Tissue: Thyroid
    • Action: Stimulates Thyroid to grow, make hormones (produce TG), secrete Thyroid hormones (T3 & T4)
  7. ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN (ACTH)
    • Secreted by: Anterior Pituitary
    • EXTRA: ACTH is a STRESS HORMONE and a PROTEIN
    • Target Tissue: Adrenal Cortex
    • Action: Stimulates A/C to secrete glucocorticoids (dominant one is Cortisol)
  8. FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE (FSH)
    • Secreted by: Anterior Pituitary
    • EXTRA: Is a gonadotropin and a PROTEIN; In Females=LH, in Males=ICSH
    • Target Tissue: Follicles of gonads
    • Action: In Females: Stimulates primordial follicle to become Graafian; stimulates Graafian to secrete Estrogen; then causes Corpus Luteum (ruptured GF) to secrete Estrogen & Progesterone. In Males: causes Interstitial Cells of Leydig to secrete Testosterone.
  9. LUTEINIZING HORMONE (LH)
    • see also: FSH
    • Stimulates Primordial follicle to become Graafian follicle, Graafian to secrete estrogen, after GF ruptures it becomes Corpus Luteum which LH causes to secrete Estrogen & Progesterone.
  10. INTERSTITIAL CELL STIMULATION HORMONE (ICSH)
    • see also: FSH
    • Stimulates the small cells around the semenal tubules (called Interstitial Cells of Leydig) to secrete Testosterone.
  11. PROLACTIN (PRL)
    • Released after birth for lactation in mothers.
    • (not known what it does in men)
  12. MELANOCYTE STIMULATING HORMONE (MSH)
    • Secreted by: Pars Intermedia (of the Pituitary)
    • Can't find additional info...need to research.
  13. THYROGLOBIN (TG)
    • Secreted by: Thyroid
    • EXTRA: Is a Storage Hormone
    • TG===>T3 & T4===> Into the Blood
    • Synthesis of T7 =
    • Tyrosine + Iodine2 ===> T3 & T4
    • Target Tissue: ALL of them, ALL your life
  14. TRIIODOTHYRONINE (T3)
    • Secreted by: Thyroid
    • EXTRA: Is an AMINE (modified Amino Acid); Main Thyroid hormone in Adults
    • Target Tissue: ALL of them, ALL your life
  15. TETRAIODOTHYRONINE (T4)
    • Secreted by: Thyroid
    • EXTRA: Is an AMINE (modified Amino Acid); More importand in EMBRYOS; precursor of T3
    • Target Tissue: ALL of them, ALL your life
  16. T7 (just another way to write T3 & T4)
    • Secreted by: Thyroid
    • Target Tissue: ALL of them, ALL your life
    • Action: too many to memorize, but some are as follows:
    • Stimulates BIG TIME protein anabolism (synthesis); Important BIG TIME in growth; effect on Breast Tissue=won't lactate correctly without T7 & PRL; Stimulates Mitochondria for ATP (effects BMR); Stimulates gut to produce digestive juices so they can break down starches/glucose; Stimulates Pancreas to secrete more insulin to use on glucose; Increases rate of respiration to produce more O2 for ATP; Increases heart rate to increase blood flow to send O2 and stuff to organs; In Men: increased T7 decreases labido, decreased T7 causes Impotence; In Women: increased T7 causes Hypermenorrhea, decreased T7 causes Amenorrhea; Acute Stress causes decrease in T7, Ongoing Stress causes increase in T7.
    • Effect on CNS: Hyperthyroid = cranky/insomnia
    • Hypothyroid = "asleep at the wheel"
  17. CALCITONIN (CT)
    • Secreted by: Thyroid
    • Action: Decreases blood Ca++ levels
    • EXTRA: Is a PROTEIN - - doesn't fit the rule for catagorization.
  18. PARATHORMONE (PTH)
    Secreted by: Parathyroid (Usually four small endocrine glands embedded in the posterior surfaces of the lateral lobes of the Thyroid Gland.

    • More info needs to be researched.
  19. GLUCAGON
    • Secreted by: Alpha Cells of the Islets of Langerhans in Pancreas
    • EXTRA: made of 29 Amino Acids
    • Action: Stimulates liver GLYCOGENOLYSIS (glycogen==>glucose).
    • After glycogenolysis, glucagon stimulates liver to secrete Glucose into the blood. (Liver is the ONLY tissue capable of this)
    • Increases blood sugar levels; Prevents Hypoglycemia under everyday circumstances.
    • Stimulus for Secretion: (by liver) Hypoglycemia
    • Target Tissue: Liver (mainly)
  20. INSULIN
    • Secreted by: Beta cells in Pancreas
    • EXTRA: made of 51 Amino Acids; CRUCIAL in synthesis of PROTEINS; ONLY hormone in body that Lowers blood sugar.
    • Target Tissue: (main ones:) Muscle, Liver, Adipose
    • Action: Impacts wound repair, Antibody production, B-cells of Immune System, IGF 1&2 secretion, normal growth and development;Stimulate AT of AA and synthesis of Proteins; Increases uptake of glucose; stimulates glucose to glycogen; Stimulates Muscle to take glucose and convert to glycogen; Stimulates Adipose to take glucose and convert to Triglycerides.
    • ***EXTRA NOTES: Brain uses Glucose for ATP, All other cells can use Glucose, Amino Acids (muscles), or Fatty Acids (adipose) for ATP. ***
  21. EPINEPHRINE (EPI or E)
  22. NOREPINEPHRINE (NOR or NE)
  23. ALDOSTERONE
    (Steroid Hormone)
    • Secreted by: Adrenal Cortex (classified as a Mineralocorticoid, because it affects the metabolism of minerals)
    • Target Tissue: Renal Tubule
    • Action: Causes Na++ reabsorption from glomerular filtrate; Prevents K+ reabsorption from glomerular filtrate; Also causes retention of Na++ and H2O.
    • Stimulus for Secretion: Renin-angeotensin mechanism
  24. CORTISOL (also HYDROCORTISONE)
  25. ANDROGENS
    (Steroid Hormone)
    • Secreted by: Adrenal Cortex (both sexes)
    • Action: Causes axillary and pubic hair in females; necessary for normal labido in adult females
    • EXTRA: Similar to testosterone, but only 20% as powerful; Amount of adrenal androgens increases at puberty; Are Masculating Hormones.
    • Pathology: Androgenital System(?)
    • Does NOT occur in adult Males.
    • Adult Females: excessive secretion may cause masculinization= clitoral enlargement, male hair patterns, voice changes, male pattern baldness.
    • Female Children: excessive secretion may cause clitoral enlargement and other masculinizing characteristics.
    • Female Fetus: excessive secretion during pregnancy (before week 12 gestation) causes Female Pseudohermaphroditism:a genetic female, female ovaries, male-like genitalia.
    • Male Children: excessive secretion can cause precocious sexual development without development of testes.
  26. TESTOSTERONE
    • Secreted by: Testes
    • Action: Masculinization, stimulates puberty in males- semenal tubules to produce sperm; normal labido in women.
    • EXTRA: Is a STEROID
  27. ESTROGEN
  28. PROGESTERONE
  29. RELAXIN
    A PROTEIN
  30. HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN (hCG)
    A PROTEIN
  31. MELATONIN
    • Secreted by: Pineal Body
    • Not well understood in mammals.
    • Possible actions:
    • May have an effect on "biological clocks" (indogeonous rhythms).
    • May control onset of puberty by inhibiting GnRF.
    • Secretion is high at night, low in daylight.
    • EXTRA: named because it lightens the skin of tadpoles (melanophores).
  32. THYMOSIN
    • Secreted by: Thymus
    • Action: In general these hormones aid in the development of the immune system.
    • This is one of several hormones isolated from the Thymus.
Author
CCdiamondqueen
ID
82728
Card Set
Hormones
Description
Hormones, glands secreting them, target tissues, actions, pathology, etc. (not quite complete yet)
Updated