Ch. 17 (Part 2)

  1. * T/F: GROWTH is the definitive test of health & is the single most specific indicator of nutritional status.
  2. * Infant weight gain:
    infant's birth weight (7.5 lbs) DOUBLES by about 4 months of age (15 lbs)

    infant's birth weight TRIPLES by the age of 1 year (22.5 lbs)
  3. * Infant length/height:
    infant's length/height INCREASES by 50% during their 1st year
  4. T/F: Babies grow FASTER during their 1st year of life than ever again.
  5. T/F: Adequate nutrition is MORE IMPORTANT during infancy & childhood than any other stage of the life cycle.
  6. Benefits of Breast Milk:
    • good source of nutrients for young infants
    • provides ALL the nutrients a healthy baby needs for its first 6 months of life, EXCEPT vitamin D
    • provides immune protection against viral & bacterial infection
    • perfect food for ALL infants during 1st year of life
    • fewer respiratory infections
    • lower chance of developing allergies
    • lower risk of childhood obesity
    • healthy development of jaws, teeth, & speech pattern contains living cells, hormones, active enzymes, & antibodies
    • Carbohydrate in breast milk = Lactose, which is easy to digest & it enhances Calcium absorption
    • Protein in breast milk is LOW
    • Lipids in breast milk = MAIN source of energy
    • contains Essential Fatty Acids (linoleic acid & linolenic acid)
  7. Fluoride for babies:
    • Breast Milk it contains 0.01 mg/day of Fluoride
    • NO Fluoride supplements UNTIL 6 months
  8. Which one is more appropriate for babies to drink-- baby formula or cow milk?
  9. 3 Nutritional Needs for Mother During Breast Feeding/Lactation:
    • 1.) EXTRA 500 kcals/day
    • 2.) mother's stored body fat ---it provides additional energy needed for lactation/breast feeding
    • 3.) additional 12-15g of Protein DURING pregnancy
    • 1.) Iron
    • 2.) Folate
    • 3.) Calcium
  11. Breastfeeding & Oral & Neuromuscular development:
    • oral & neuromuscular development DEPEND ON sucking
    • breastfeeding demands baby to open mouth wide & move jaws back/forth & squeeze with gingiva to extract milk (suckling)
    • breastfeeding encourages MAXIMUM jaw & chin development
    • breastfeeding = LESS malocclusion; 40% LESS orthodontia if breastfed
  12. Transitioning infants to solid foods:
    should begin around 6 months

    is determined by infant's developmental readiness

    (greater calorie needs go hand in hand with development of fine motor skills)
  13. Dietary Guidelines for INFANTS:
    • are SIMILAR to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, EXCEPT--infants do NOT need to LIMIT fat & cholesterol
    • 40-50% cals NEED to come from fat
  14. Dental Issues in Infants due to Nutrient supply:
    • Nutritional deficiencies &/or excesses during early oral development can have permanent deleterious effects
    • developmental defects are COMMON in malnourished children
  15. Thumb sucking:
    thumb sucking for LONG PERIODS of time pushes jaw line out of shape & causes a bucktoothed profile, narrow vault, & malocclusion
  16. *PROLONGED Sucking on Bottle of Milk/Juice:
    • bathes upper teeth in CHO-rich fluid
    • favors growth of bacteria that produce acid, which dissolves tooth material
    • may develop ECC
    • NO fruit juice under 6 months

    S. Mutans is acquired from the mother
  17. Early Childhood Caries (ECC) -
    the PRESENCE of 1 or MORE DMFT in ANY primary tooth in a child LESS THAN 71 months of age
  18. NBC -
    Nursing Bottle Caries
  19. Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD) -
    is the LEADING oral health problem among children < 3 yrs old
  20. Severe Early Childhood Caries (SECC) -
    is also a result of EXCESSIVE breastfeeding
  21. Does disease state (caries) follow tooth eruption patterns?

    • 1.) Maxillary incisors
    • 2.) 1st molars
    • 3.) Maxillary canines
  22. What causes RAMPANT CARIES?
    the innoculation of S. Mutans from fermentable Carbohydrates (CHO's)
  23. When should a child have their 1st dental visit?
    WITHIN 6 months of their 1st tooth eruption
  24. Infant's Basal Metabolic Rate:
    it's about 2x more than an adult's Basal Metabolic Rate
  25. An infant's RAPID growth & metabolism DEMAND a big supply of ALL the nutrients:
    • 1.) Vitamin A
    • 2.) Vitamin D
    • 3.) Calcium
  26. T/F: Our PREFERENCE for SWEET foods is an INBORN DESIRE
  27. * Vitamin K
    • A newborn's digestive tracts is sterile & it takes weeks for the Vitamin K-producing bacteria to establish themselves in the baby's intestine
    • To PREVENT uncontrolled bleeding in a newborn, a single dose of Vitamin K is given at birth
  28. Water:
    • is ONE of the MOST IMPORTANT nutrients for infants
    • Breast milk or formula normally provide enough water to replace fluid flosses in a healthy infant
  29. Where should infants get their sources of IRON & VITAMIN C?
  30. Iron:
    • Iron ranks HIGHEST on the list of nutrients MOST needing attention in infant nutrition
    • Infant's stored iron supply from before birth runs out after their birthweight doubles, which is long before the end of the 1st year
  31. 5 Foods to OMIT from Infant's Diet:
    • 1.) Sweets - sweets of any kind have NO place in baby's diet
    • 2.) Sugar Alcohol-containing products - such as Sorbitol should be LIMITED bc can cause diarrhea
    • 3.) Canned Vegetables - often contain TOO MUCH salt
    • 4.) Honey - should NEVER be fed to infants bc of risk of botulism
    • 5.) Fruit Juice (under age of 6 months) - provides NO nutritional benefit under age of 6 months & causes digestive upset; it is concentrated sugar; dilute with 50% water FIRST
  32. 3 Guidelines for Toddlers Diet:
    • 1.) Provide ADEQUATE calories & nutrients to SUPPORT growth & development
    • 2.) REDUCE risk of diet-related chronic diseases LATER in LIFE
    • 3.) Adopt diet consistent with Dietary Guidelines for Americans for fat & cholesterol by age 5
  33. Serving Sizes for Toddlers:
    • base their serving size on their appetite
    • 1 Tbsp/year of life
  34. Is MILK a good source of IRON?

    Milk is a POOR source of IRON; LARGE amounts of milk INTERFERE with IRON ABSORPTION.
  35. Do NOT Give Infants CHOKABLES:
    nuts, seeds, grapes, round candy, hot dogs, raw carrots, pretzels, potato chips, popcorn, peanut butter, raisins, caramel
  36. Fiber for Kids:
    RULE OF THUMB = kids AGE + 5 grams/day
  37. Fat intake for Kid's:
    DECREASE fat intake to 25-35% of total energy
  38. Amount of MILK for children/kid's & adolescents:
    • Children/Kids = 3 servings milk/day
    • Adolescents/Teens = 4 servings milk/day
  39. Fat intake should NOT be limited before what age?
    • Fat intake should NOT be limited BEFORE age 2
    • Restricting fat early in life may compromise a child's growth & protein & nutrient intake
  40. Growth Rates of Children/Kids:
    • Grow about 2-3 inches/year
    • Gain 5 lbs/year
    • Achieve 1/2 of adult height by age 2.5-3 years
  41. Caloric Requirement of Children/Kids:
    1000 kcals + 100 kcal/year of life
  42. Preschoolers:
    • their energy REFUELS every 2-4 hours
    • like texture of RAW vegetables BETTER THAN cooked vegetables
  43. School Age Children: 7-12 years old
    • = tooth exfoliation years
    • systemic fluoride until age 16
    • topical fluoride : gels, varnishes, water, dentifrices, rinses
    • sealants
    • diet is usually NOT OPTIMAL bc kids this age are busy & occupied
  44. Overweight Children:
    • is becoming PANDEMIC
    • children are HEAVIER today than they were 20 or so years ago
    • since late 1970s, the PREVALENCE of overweight children has DOUBLED & shows NO SIGN of slowing down
  45. OBESE Children are typically:
    • FEMALE
    • have FAMILY HISTORY of Type 2 Diabetes
    • were born to mothers who had Gestational Diabetes while pregnant with them
    • have Metabolic Syndrome
    • have LOW family incomes
    • are MORE SEDENTARY than their peers
  46. Metabolic Syndrome -
    impaired glucose tolerance, elevated blood triglycerides, & reduced HDL cholesterol
  47. Childhood Obesity & Early Chronic Diseases
    • Type 2 Diabetes
    • Dental Caries
    • Metabolic Syndrome
  48. EARLY development of Type 2 Diabetes in Children:
    • ~ 85% of children with Type 2 Diabetes are OBESE, SEDENTARY, & have FAMILY HISTORY of OBESITY
    • MOST are DIAGNOSED during PUBERTY, but is trending EARLIER
  49. Dental Caries Incidence in Children (ages 2-5):
    20% of children (ages 2-5) experience 80% of reported dental caries
  50. Dental Caries occurrence in Children is associated with:
    • LOW parent education level
    • living in poverty
    • NOT breast fed
    • skipping breakfast
    • LOW fruit & vegetable intake
    • NO dental visit for MORE THAN 1 year
    • INADEQUATE Calcium & Vitamin D intake
  51. Fluorided water & Caries rate in Children:
    caries rated is REDUCED by 60% by using fluoridated water during EARLY GROWTH PERIODS
  52. 3 Effects of Soft Drinks:
    • 1.) are the SINGLE BIGGEST source of refined sugars in the American diet
    • 2.) are a MAJOR contributor to dental caries
    • 3.) overall diet quality is COMPROMISED if nutrient-dense dairy products are REPLACED with calorie-dense soft drinks
  54. IMMEDIATE medical needs of children may cause what?
    the health of the mouth to be OVERLOOKED
  55. 2 dental status examples that can affect child's feeding ability & be a MAJOR contributor to poor nutrition:
    • 1.) impairment of chewing
    • 2.) pain while eating, causing a LIMIT in food intake
  56. 7 Oral Manifestations of Mental Retardation, CP, Down Syndrome, & Austim:
    • 1.) Gum Disease
    • 2.) Mastication, Sucking, Swallowing problem
    • 3.) Bruxism, Clenching, Grinding
    • 4.) Loose Teeth
    • 5.) Tardive Dyskinesia/Tongue Thrusting
    • 6.) Poor Muscle Tone
    • 7.) Poor Chewing development
  57. 5 Common Oral Motor Problems of Special Needs Children:
    • 1.) Abnormal muscle tone & weakness
    • 2.) Poor lip closure
    • 3.) Tonic bite reflex
    • 4.) Decreased jaw stability
    • 5.) Oral hypersensitivity
  58. 2 Major Dental Concerns of Special Needs Children:
    • 1.) Tooth Decay
    • 2.) Gum Disease
  59. 3 Causes of Tooth Decay & Gum Disease in Special Needs Children:
    • Mouth deformities make tooth brushing & oral hygiene DIFFICULT
    • Chewing & swallowing difficulties may require consumption of soft &/or pureed foods
    • Certain medications can cause gingival overgrowth or dry mouth
  60. Special Needs Children:
    • POOR oral hygiene
    • food waste, which yields POOR nutrition
    • medication effects: gingival overgrowth, xerostomia, bad taste
  61. T/F: Nutritional needs vary DEPENDING on life stage & age.
Card Set
Ch. 17 (Part 2)
Nutrition Exam 3