Chapter 13

  1. What are the general characteristics of the
    endocrine system?
    • releases hormones into the bloodstream
    • regulate metabolic processes
  2. What is a hormone?
    • substance secreted by an endocrine gland and transported in the blood
    • organic compound
  3. What is the basic function of a hormone?
    stimulate changes in target cells even in extremely low concentrations
  4. What are paracrine substances?
    • synthesized from a type of fatty acid in cell membranse
    • produce liver, kidney, heart, lungs, thymus gland, pancreas, brain and reproductive organ cells
  5. What are autocrine substances?
    affect only secreting cells
  6. Define steroid hormones
    • derived from cholesterol
    • include sex hormone
    • secretions from adrenal cortex
  7. Define nonsteroid hormones?
    • called amines
    • derived from amino acid tyrosine
    • synthesized in the adrenal medulla
  8. How do steroid and nonsteroid hormones affect their target cells?
    • steroid:combine with specific protein receptors
    • nonsteroid: combines with specific receptor molecules
  9. What are prostaglandins?
    paracrine substances, are potent and present in small amounts
  10. How do prostaglandins function?
    • they are not stored, they are synthesized just before they are released
    • regulate cellular responses to hormones
  11. How does the nervous system aid in the regulations of hormones?
    • directly stimulates some glands
    • adrenal medulla
  12. How does the hypothalamus aid in the regulation of hormones?
    controls the anterior pituitary gland's releade of tropic hormones, which stimulate other endocrine to glands release hormones
  13. How does the internal environment aid in the regulation of hormones?
    • group of glands responds directly to changes in environment
    • (blood glucose rises, pancreas secretes insulin)
  14. Describe the negative feedback system
    mechanism that restores a biochemical or other balance in which build up of a product suppresses its synthesis
  15. at the base of the brain
    attached to the hypothalamus
    lies in the stella turcica
    pituitary gland
  16. vascular structure that consists of two large lateral loves connected by a broad isthmus
    below the larynx on either side and anterior to the trachea
    thyroid gland
  17. on the posterior suface of the thyroid gland
    usually 4 of them
    parathyroid glands
  18. a gland sits atop each kidney like a cap and is embedded in the mass of adipose tissue that encloses the kidney
    adrenal gland
  19. elongated, somewhat flattened organ posterior to the stomach and behind the parietal peritoneum
  20. small oval structure deep between the cerebral hemispheres, attached to the upper portion of the thalamus
    pineal gland
  21. Growth hormone
    thyroid stimulating hormone
    adrenocorticotropic hormone
    follic-stimulating hormone
    luteinizing hormone
    antidiuretic hormone
    pituitary gland
  22. thyroxine
    thyroid gland
  23. secretes the protein parathyroid hormone
    parathyroid gland
  24. epinephrine aka adrenalin
    norepinephrine aka noradrenalin
    sex hormones
    adrenal glands
  25. aldosterone
    adrenal androgens
    adrenal cortex
  26. glucagon
  27. melatonin
    pineal gland
  28. lies in the mediastinum posterior to the sternum and between the lungs
  29. thymosins
  30. stimulates increase in size and rate of division of body cells; enhances movement of amino acids
    Growth Hormone (GH)
  31. sustains milk production after birth; amplifies effect of LH in males
    Prolactin (PRL)
  32. controls secretion of hormones from the thyroid gland
    thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
  33. controls secretion of certain hormones from the adrenal cortex
    adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH)
  34. development of egg-containing follicles in ovaries; stimulates follicular cells to secrete estrogen;in males, stimulates production of sperm cells
    follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
  35. promotes secretion of sex hormones; release egg cells in females
    Luteinizing hormone(LH)
  36. causes kidneys to reduce water excertion; in high concentration, raises blood pressure
    antidiuretic hormone(ADH)
  37. contracts muscles in uterine wall and those associated with milk secreting glands
  38. increases rate of energy release from carbohydrates; increases rate of protein synthesis; accelerates growth; stimulates activity in nervous system
    Thyroxine (T4)
  39. increases rate of energy release from carbohydrates; increases rate of
    protein synthesis; accelerates growth; stimulates activity in nervous system.....5 times more potent
    Triiodothyronine (T3)
  40. lowers blood calcium and phosphate ion concentrations by inhibiting release of calcium and phosphat ions from bones
  41. helps regulate the concentration of extracellular electrocytes by conserving sodium ions and excreting potassium ions
  42. decreases protein synthesis, increases fatty acid release and stimulates glucose synthesis from noncarbohydrates
  43. supplement sex hormones from the gonads; may be converted into estrogens
    adrenal androgens
  44. stimulates the liver to break don glycogen and convert noncarbohydrates into glucose; stimulates breakdown of fats
  45. promotes formation of glycogen from glucose, inhibits conversion of noncarbohydrates into glucose and enhances movement of glucose through adipose and muscle cell membranse
  46. helps regulate carbohydrates
  47. insufficient secretion of human growth hormone during childhood produces
    hypopituitary dwarfism
  48. high metabloic rate, sensitivity to heat; restlessness, hyperactivity, weight loss, protruding eyes, goiter
  49. autoantibodies bind TSH receptors on thyroid cell membrans, mimicking action of TSH, overstimulating gland and goiter
    Graves Disease
  50. autoantibodies attack thyroid cells, resulting in hypothyroidism
    hashimoto disease
  51. cretinism-stunted growth, abnormal bone formation, mental retardation, low body temperature, sluggishness
    hypothyroidism (infantile)
  52. myxedema-low metabolic rate; sensitivity to cold, sliggishness, poor appetite, swollen tissues, mental dullness
  53. deficiency of thyroid hormones due to iodine deficiency; because no thyroid hormones inhibit pituitary release of TSH, thyroid is ocerstimulated and enlarges but functions below normal
    simple goiter
  54. fatigue, muscle weakness, painful joints, altered mental functions, depression, weight loss, bone weakening, increased PTH secretions overstimulaates osteoclasts
  55. muscle cramps and seizures, decreased PTH secretion reduces osteoclast activity, diminishing blood calcium ion concentration
  56. decreased blood sodium, increased blood potassium, low blood glucose level, dehydration, low blood pressure, frequesnt infections, fatigue nasuea and vomitting, increased skin pigmentation
    addisons disease
  57. the pancreas can not produce insulin
    symptoms begin before age twenty
    juvenile of insulin dependent)
    Type 1 diabetes mellitus
  58. non-insulin dependent
    ususally in people over 40
    cells lost insulin receptors and are less able to respond to insulin
    Type II diabetes mellitus
  59. impars ADH regulation of water balance
    diabetes imsipidus
  60. Which part of the brain controls your response
    to stress?
  61. threatens tissues, extreme heat or cold, decreased oxygen concentration, infections, injuries, prolonmges heavy exercise
    physical stress
  62. results from thoughts about real or imagined dangers, personal losses, unpleasent social interactions
    psychological stress
  63. Which hormones are involved in the stress response?
    • epinephrine
    • corticotropin releasing hormone
    • ACTH
    • Cortisol
  64. Which systems are affected by stress?
    autonomic nervous system
  65. List some the life span changes seen in the endocrine system.
    endocrine glands shrink and accumulate fibrous connective tissue, fat and lipofuscin
  66. hormone the adrenal medulla secretes during times of stress
  67. neurotransmitter released from the axons of some nerve fibers
Card Set
Chapter 13
Holes Human Anatomy and Physiology