1. How Biofeedback Works
    • Biofeedback does not monitor the strength of the muscle contraction but rather the sonditions associated with the response
    • Neurological activity
    • Measures electrial activity of muscle not muscle contraction
    • No value or the strength
  2. Indications for Biofeedback
    • Muscle Re-education
    • Regaining neuromuscular control
    • Increasing isometric and isotonic strength or a muscle
    • Relaxtion of muscle spams
    • Decreasing mucle guarding
  3. Contraindications of Biofeedback
    • Any musculoskeletal condion in which a musclar contraction might exacerbate that condition
    • If isometric contraction are contraindicated biofeedback is not used
  4. Electromyographic Biofeedback (EMG)
    • Measures the electrical activity in skeletal muscle
    • most typically used of alll the biofeedback modalitied in a clincial setting
  5. Peripheral Temperature
    • Measures temperature changes in the distal extremities
    • Increased temperature indicated a relaxed state
    • Decreased temperature indicates stress, fear or anxiety
  6. Photoplethysmography Biofeedback
    Measures the amount of light relected by subcutaneous tissue based on the amount of blood flow
  7. Galvanic Skin Response
    Measures the amount of perspiration on the skin by passing a small current through the fingers and or palm
  8. Hoe electrodes work
    • Teh electrodes meausre the electrial activity wtihin a local area of a muscle (usucally the muscle belly)
    • the amount of electical activity within the muscle increases as more motor units are recruited into the contraction
    • these signals are then picked up by the electrodes amplified and converted into visual or auditory signals
  9. Electrode Placement
    placed parallel to the dirction of the muscle fibers to encsure that a better sample of muscle activity is monitored while reducing extraceous electrial activity
  10. How the signals are used
    • High gain: uinti will have a high sensitivty for the muscle activity
    • Used with relaxation trainging
    • Low gain: Used with muscle re-ed
  11. Primary application for using biofeedback
    • Muscle re-ed: neuromuscular controlm increasing muscle strength
    • Relacation of muscle smasm or muscle guarding
    • Pain reduction
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