Ch 20 Exercise and Diabetes

  1. The metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia (elevated plasma glucose)?
    Diabetes Mellitus
  2. Diabetes sometimes coexists with ___ and ___.
    hypertension and dyslipidemia
  3. highest rates are seen in individuals who are __ yrs.
    >60 years
  4. The increasing prevalence in children is liked to __?
  5. Type of diabetes characterized by a deficiency of insulin often attributable to an autoimmune destruction of insulin producing beta cells of the pancreas.
    Type 1 diabetes
  6. -lack of insulin
    -loss of insulin secreting beta cells of the pancreas
    -appears early in life
    -more closely linked to genetics than lifestyle
    -requires regular liked insulin injections and blood glucose level checks
    type 1 diabetes (10 % of cases)
  7. Type of diabetes that insulin receptors become insensitive or resistant to insulin and because glucose can't move easily into cells, hyperglycemia results.
    Type 2 diabetes
  8. -Characterized by insulin resistance
    -insulin receptors no longer respond normally to insulin
    -glucose entry into cell is impaired leads to hyperglycemia
    -plasma insulin levels may be supressed, normal, or elevated
    -controlled through diet and exercise in some individuals
    -meds usually required
    type 2 diabetes (most common, 90% of diabetic population)
  9. T/F
    Type 2 diabetes develops over time?
  10. Type 2 diabetes first appears as impaired fasting glucose. What is the concentration?
    100-125 mg/dl
  11. It can also occur as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)
    What is this?
    • blood glucose after injection of CHO is higher than normal and remains elevated longer than normal
    • glucose level is 140-199 mg/dl for 2 hours after oral glucose tolerance test.
  12. Effects of Diabetes Mellitus
    • vision impairment
    • kidney disease
    • peripheral vascular disease
    • arthersclerosis
    • hypertension
    • poor healing of wounds
    • neuropathy
  13. More than ___ MILLION americans have diabetes and __% are type 2 diabetes
    • 20 MILLION
    • 90%
  14. Interpreting plasma Glucose Levels
    What is normal plasma glucose concentration?
    less than 100 mg/dl but not above 60 mg/dl
  15. Interpreting plasma Glucose Levels
    Fasting glucose concentrations are between?
  16. Prediabetes ?
    individuals with either impaired fasting glucose or imparied glucose tolerence.
  17. Prediabetes evolves into what?
    type 2 diabetes and it affects 41 MILLION americans
  18. Diagnosing Diabetes Mellitus

    Diabetes Fasting plasma glucose >___ mg/dl on two separate occasions.
    >126 mg/dl
  19. Diagnosing Diabetes Mellitus

    Diabetes symptoms
    • Unusual thirst
    • frequent urination
    • unexplained weight loss
    • casual plasma glucose >200 mg/dl
  20. Diagnosing Diabetes Mellitus

    A glucose ___ mg/dl two hours after ingesting 75 g of CHO.
    >200 mg/dl
  21. -Inability to maintain normal glucose levels during pregnancy even with treatment
    -7% of all pregnancies
    -Risk : Obesity
    -Resolves: Post partum
    -Resembles type 2 diabetes- genetic, insulin resistance, and deficient insulin reverse
    Gestational DM
  22. Can exercise prevent type 2 diabetes?
    • NO,
    • However diabetic clients can gain many health benefits from exercise.
  23. Can exercise treat and prevent type 2 diabetes?
    • YES
    • Regular activity reduces risk by 30-50 %
  24. T/F
    People who have impaired glucose tolerance are less likely to develop diabetes if they begin exercise regularly.
  25. How can exercise benefit the treatment of type 2 diabetes?
    • lowers fasting blood glucose
    • improves insulin sensitivity
    • improves glucose tolerance
    • reduces disease risk - CHD, dyslipidemia, HTN, and obesity
    • improves quality of life
    • stress management
  26. Exercise risks
    • hypoglycemia
    • worsening of hyperglycemia
    • cardiovascular accidents
    • degenerative joint damage
    • microvascular damage, eyes, kidneys
    • orthopedic injury or ulcest and feet
  27. Exercise RX for DM
    • MODE-- aerobic (resistance training also recommended)
    • FREQUENCY-- 3-5 days similar to obesity
    • INTENSITY-- 50-70% VO2max
    • DURATION-- 20-60 min
  28. To avoid exercise induced hyperglycemia
    what do you do?
    • measure blood glucose immediately before and 15 min after exercise
    • consume CHO if glucose is less than 100 mg/dl
    • delay exercise if glucose is more than 250 mg/dl with ketone bodies or over 300 mg/dl without ketones
    • avoid exercising during times of peak insulin action
  29. What is the condition which several coronary heart disease risk factors all cluster together?
    Metabolic Syndrome (Syndrome X)
  30. What are some of the CHD factors that are included in Met Syn?
    • dislipidemia
    • insulin resistance
    • elevated BP... etc
  31. Metabolic Syndrome increases risk of __ and __.
    Type 2 diabetes and CVD
  32. For MET Syndrome you must have 3 or more of the following:
    • 1. SBP >130 and DBP >85 mmHg
    • 2. Fasting glucose >110 mg/dl
    • 3. LOW HDL <40 mg/dl for men
    • LOW HCL <50 md/dl for women
    • 4. High triglycerides >150 mg/dl
    • 5 Waist circumference > 102 cm for men
    • Waist circumference > 88cm for women
Card Set
Ch 20 Exercise and Diabetes
exercise and diabetes