When was the Treaty of St. Germain? Which country did it deal with?
Sep 1919. Austria
In the treaty of St. Germain, how much was Austria's army restricted to?
In the Treaty of St. Germain. State the territorial changes - for Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Italy,Poland, Romania
- 1.Bohemia and Moravia to Czechoslovakia
- 2.Dalmatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina to Yugoslavia
- 3.Istria, the Trentino and South Tyrol to Italy
- 4.Galicia to Poland
- 5.Bukovina to Romania
When was the treaty of Neuilly? Which country did it deal with?
Nov 1919. Bulgaria
In the Treaty of Neuilly, how much was Bulgaria's armed force restricted to?
State the territorial changes of the Treaty of Neuilly.-Yugoslavia-Greece-Romania
- 1.Northern Macedonia went to Yugoslavia
- 2.Western Thrace went to Greece (lost its Aegean coastline)
- 3.Dobrudja went to Romania
Which country did the Treaty of Trianon deal with? When was it?
Hungary, June 1920
What was hungary's limit for the armed forces?
Describe the territorial changes of Hungary in 1920.-Czechoslovakis-Yugoslavia-Romania-Austria
- 1.Slovakia and Ruthenia to Czechoslovakia
- 2.Croatia and Slovenia to Yugoslavia
- 3.Translyvania to Romania
- 4.Burgenland to Austria
In the treaty of Trianon, how much was Hungary's population reduced?
- Many Magyar speakers now part of neighbouring countries: Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Rumania. Also, Hungary lost majority of raw materials.
How did Hungary counter the Treaty of Trianon?
- 1927, friendship treaty with Mussolini’s Italy to counter isolation
- 1920-1, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Romania signed 'the Little Entente', they feared Hungary might go to war.
When was the treaty of sevres and which country did it deal with?
State the territorial changes of Turkey in the treaty of sevres.
Eastern thrace and Aegean islands to Greece.The Straits of Dardanelles controlled by International Commission.
How did Turkey counter the treaty of sevres?
The treaty of Lausanne in 1923 altered the Treaty of Sevres following a nationalist revolt and war against Greece (started by Kemal)
What became of Turkey's colonies in the treaty of sevres?
- -Turkey lost rights to Sudan and Libya; had to recognize French Morocco and Tunis, British Egypt and Cyprus-Saudi Arabia, Kurdistan and Armenia became independent
- -Syria, Mesopotamia (Iraq) and Palestine became League of Nations mandates and administered by Britain and France
How was Britain's military weakened by WWI? How did military spending decrease?
- 300,000 in 1919 to 180,000 by early 1930s. military spending cut from 604m pounds in 1919 to 111m pounds in 1922.
- 1930-1, Britain’s senior military commanders said they didn’t have resources to intervene militarily in Europe. So Britain preferred to make concessions to Germany over Versailles Treaty.
At what size did France maintain its army at throughout the 20s, in contrary to disarmament?
When did France sign military agreements with Poland and Czechoslovakia?
- France signed military agreements with Poland (1921) and Czechoslovakia (1924) against Germany.
- But France’s commitment was limited and Czech-Polish rivalry undermined the value of these agreements
What was the Maginot Line?
France's expensive defence on German border in 1928; it still wasn’t complete at the outbreak of WWII, and it continued even during the Locarno Honeymoon
What did Senator Henry Lodge say about USA joining the League of Nations?
“I object in the strongest possible way to having the USA agree…to be controlled by an organization which may at any time be drawn in to deal with internal conflicts in other countries, no matter what those conflicts might be. It must be made perfectly clear that American soldiers can never be engaged in war or ordered anywhere except by the constitutional authorities of the USA”
When did Wilson sign up to the Anglo-American guarantee for France?
When was the Washington Conference on disarmament? When were the treaties signed?
1920-1. Treaties signed between Dec 1921-Feb 1922
Name the three treaties of the Washington Conference. When were each signed?
- Four Power treaty - Dec 1921(USA, Britain, France, japan)
- Five Power Treaty - Feb 1922(USA, Britain, Japan, France, Italy)
- Nine Power Treaty - Feb 1922
Who was in charge of the Washington Treaties?
Charles Evans Hughes - USA
When was the London Naval Conference?
1930. It was an extension of the Washington Naval Treaties
When was the 2nd London Naval Conference?
- Dec 1935.
- Japan insisted in parity with USA and British fleets and walked out when refused.
When was the Geneva Disarmament Conference?
When was the Preparatory Disarmament Commission established? And how long did it take to organise the Geneva Disarmament Conference?
1926. 5 years
What did Graham Ross comment on the Disarmament requirements for France?
“France wanted security before disarmament”
When did the Geneva Disarmament conference five powers agree to equality leading to Germany coming back into the conference?
In Dec 1932. But before the conference reconvened, Hitler was appointed Chancellor.
What did President Hoover propose in the Disarmament Conference in June 1932?
Abolition of offensive weapons and reduction in defensive weapons by one-third.
Who outlined the 5 year disarmament scheme and what was it?
When did the Geneva conference adjourn for the 2nd time after disagreements?
- Ramsay MacDonald, the British Prime Minister.
- scheme towards approximate parity. He also proposed that Germany wouldn’t have full access to all categories of weapons and French forces stationed in parts of the French Empire wouldn’t count (so their total armed forces would be greater than Germany’s).
- But MacDonald’s proposals were criticized by France and objected by Germany. The conference again adjourned in May 1933
What were some of the failed terms in July 1932 of the Geneva conference? Why did they fail?
- -resolutions to prohibit bombing of civilian populations
- -Limiting size of artillery, tonnage of tanks and prohibiting chemical warfare
But it didn’t show how it would be achieved. For example, bombing war prohibited, but attempts to abolish planes capable of bombing not executed.
When did Hitler withdraw from the Geneva Conference/League using France's refusal on parity?
When did the Geneva Disarmament Conference collapse?
When did Germany step up Rearmament? When did they attempt an Anschluss?
When did Hitler reintroduce Conscription? To what level?
March 1935 - reintroduction of conscription and he’d build up army of 550,000 men.
When was the Plebiscite of the Saar Region?
Jan 1935. It returns to Germany.
When was the Rhineland Remilitarised?
What and when was the Anglo-German Naval Agreement.
1935 July. Navy no more than 35% of British Navy. Hitler saw Britain as a potential ally.
When and What was the Stresa Pact?
April 1935. Italy, Britain, France will stand up to Germany if it is threatening and will continue to honour Locarno treaty.
How often did the Council and the assembly meet?
- Council - 3 or 4 times a year
- Assembly - once a year
How did the League Assembly grow from 1920-4?
42 countries in 1920; grew to 55 in 1924 (63 overall)
When did Japan withdraw from the League of Nations? Why?
March 1933 over Manchurian Crisis
When did the USSR join and leave the league? Why did it leave?
joined in 1934. Expelled in 1939 over attack on Finland
Why and when did Italy leave the League?
Walked out in 1937 over Abyssinia
When did Germany join the League?
According to Graham Ross, what did the League assume that led to the failure of collective security?
"Transgressors would lack friends and allies and would therefore be especially susceptible to economic pressure”
Which Article of the League Constitution stated that each nation had the power of veto?
1924-5, How did the French try to increase the capability of the League?
- Draft Treaty of Mutual Assistance (1924) and the Geneva Protocol (1924-5) - if League states were attacked, there would by military support.
- The Geneva Protocol was however, rejected in 1925 by Britain and by British Dominions (Australia etc.)
Give examples of the League's Departments and Commissions that were successful
- International Labour Organisation
- Refugee Organisation (sent PoWs home)
- Slavery Organisation (liberated 200,000 slaves in Sileria Leone)
Apart from Plebiscites, name three other early League successes.
- -Aaland Islands 1920-1
- -Mosul 1923-4
- -Greek-Bulgarian Clash - 1925
Aaland Islands - 1920-1
Sweden and Finland dispute over 6500 Aaland islands. League awarded islands to Finland, despite that majority were Swedish. Sweden accepted the ruling it was to remain demilitarized.
Mosul - 1923-4
Dispute between Turkey and Iraq over Mosul. Turkey accepted that it should remain part of Iraq
Greek-Bulgarian Clash - 1925
Bulgaria demands compensation from Greece for killing soldier and attacks Greece. League fined Greece for border attack on Bulgaria, they acted swiftly and passed a resolution calling for immediate end to hostilities. Greece withdraws but complains of double standards for Bulgaria.
State the 4 plebiscites and the ending results of them.
- 1919 Eupen and Malmedy - Awarded to Belgium
- 1920 Schleswig - Divided between Germany and Denmark
- 1920 Allenstein and Marienwerder - Largely awarded to Germany
- 1921 Upper Silesia - Partitioned between Poland and Germany. League Council provided free movement across border so Upper Silesia’s would still be an economic unit. Germany/Poland weren’t satisfied, but agreed in May 1922.
Kellog Briand Pact
1928, 26 countries came together for world peace. But it didn't state the consequences of a breach of agreement
Name 6 early league failures.
- -Poland's seizure of Vilna - 1920-3
- -russo-polish war - 1920-1
- -Greek-Turkish War - 1920-3
- -Upper Silesia 1921
- -Lithuania's seizure of Memel - 1923
- -Corfu Incident - 1923
Poland's Seizure of Vilna 1920-3
Fighting in 1919-20 between Poland and Lithuania. Poland gains control of Vilna, a medieval capital of Lithuania. League attempts to get Poland to hand over Vilna in 1922. In 1923, conference of ambassadors awarded Vilna to Poland, Lithuania refused to recognise it
Upper Silesia conflict - 1921
Germany and Poland fought for it with 3 riots in 1919-20. Plebiscite in Upper Silesia. It was divided between Germany and Poland bitterly. May 1922, they accepted it.
Russo-Polish War - 1920-1
War between Russia and Poland, Poland ended up with gains through the Treaty of Riga (1921). League unable to exert any influence.
Greek-Turkish War - 1920-3
Turkey went to war with Greece to challenge treaty of Sevres. League unable to end conflict and negotiated with the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923 instead.
Lithuania's Seizure of Memel - 1923
Versailles took East Prussian port from Germany to be administered by Allies. Lithuania occupied it in 1923. Conference of Ambassadors failed to negotiate agreement on German population and Poland's access to port facilities. League Council got an agreement; but Germany and Poland were unsatisfied
Corfu Incident - 1923
Italian troops occupied Greece after murder of italian general by Greek bandits. Italy demanded compensation, League ruled Italy should evacuate Corfu. But Conference of Ambassadors (the Italian General worked for them) ordered 50m compensation to Italy.
What evidence was there that Germany was struggling to pay reparations?
- 1920 and 1921, Germans defaulted payments twiceBy December 1921, Germany asked for postponement of payments due in Jan and Feb 1922 (just 7 months after the schedule was announced)
- Dec 1922, Reparations Commission ruled Germany failed to keep to schedule of timber deliveries.
When did the Reparations commission arrive with cost figures?
When was the reparations schedule announced to Germany?
When and what was the Spa Conference?
July 1920, agreement on coal level to delivered by Germany
Name the nine independent states created by the paris peace treaties. And state how many out of the total population were minorities.
- Finland, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Yugoslavia, Romania.
- Out of a population of 98m, 19m were minorities
From 1918-28, how much of the Arab Jewish population grew in Palestine (British Mandate)?
- Arabs grew 100,000
- Jews grew 90,000
How many soldiers died in WWI?
In WWI, when did Russia start losing momentum?
- Russia still victorious by 1917. But lost momentum in Aug 1918.
- Sep 1918, Russia surrendered
When was the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk?
State the 7 states Russia gave up as a result of the Treaty of Litovsk
Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Finland, Poland, Ukraine and Georgia.
Following Germany’s defeat, most became independent (except Georgia and Ukraine, forced back into USSR).
When did the Kaiser Abdicate and when did the new Weimar government sign the sign the ceasefire?
- 9th Nov – Kaiser abdicates
- 11 Nov – sign ceasefire, it was a fait accompli agreement.
How many French soldiers and citizens died in WWI?
- 1.24m soldiers
- 40,000 civilians
- It’d been fought on French soil
Treaty of London (1915)
- agreement to prompt Italy to join WWI
- Britain and France agreed that certain territories with significant numbers of non-Italian speakers (e.g. German-speaking South Tyrol) should be handed to Italy.
- After the war, David Lloyd George (British Prime Minister) apologized.
The McMahon Declaration (1915)
British High Commissioner in Cairo, sir Henry McMahon, with Hussein Ibn Ali, Sheriff of Mecca, promised support for Arab independence – if Arabs rose against Turkish rule.
The Sykes-Picot Agreement (1916)
Britain and France defined their territories of the Middle East. Mesopotamia to British; Syria would come under France, Palestine under international administration
The Balfour Declaration (1917)
Arthur Balfour, British Foreign Secretary wrote to British Zionist Federation declaring British government to support establishment of Palestine of a national home for Jews
how much of Germany's population was lost due to the treaty of versailles?
What percentage of land did they lose?
13% (88m squared)
List 5 major territorial losses of Germany due to the versailles treaty
- 1.Alsace-Lorraine to France
- 2.West Prussia and Posen to Poland
- 3.North Schleswig to Denmark
- 4.Eupen and Malmedy to Belgium
- 5.Danzig a free city, with Poland given right to use its port facilities
When did France decide to build Maginot line?
When did France sign military mutal assistance with Poland and Czech?
- Poland - 1921
- Czech - 1924
When were the Washington Conferences?
Dec 1921- Feb 1922
When was the London Naval Conference?
- extended in Dec1935-6
When was the Geneva Disarmament Conference?
How long did it take for the Preparatory Disarmament Commission to plan the Geneva Disarmament conference?
By March 1935, how large was Hitler's army?
When did Germany leave the league and disarmament?
When was the Rhineland remilitarised?
When does the Saar return to Germany?
When and what was the Anglo-German naval agreement?
July 1935, german navy could be 35% of Britain's
When does the Disarmement collapse, at the same time Hitler's attempted Anschluss?
When was the Stresa pact?
April 1935. Britain Italy and France in alliance against German aggression after Anschluss.
Geneva Protocol, Draft Treaty of Mutual Alliance
- 1924-5, 1924
- proposal treaties made by France, Geneva Protocol was rejected in 1925
EARLY LEAGUE SUCCESSES
- 1920-1 (Sweden and Finland dispute over 6500 Aaland islands. League awarded islands to Finland)
- 1923-4 (Dispute between Turkey and Iraq over Mosul. Turkey accepted that it should remain part of Iraq)
When was the Kellog Briand pact? and what?
1928. 26 countries came together for peace
Name the 4 plebiscites in 1919-21
- 1919 Eupen and Malmedy - went to Belgium
- 1920 - Schleswig - divided between Denmark and Germany
- 1920 - Allenstein and Marienwerder - kept to Germany
- 1921 - upper silesia - divided between Germany and Poland, agreed in may 1922
EARLY LEAGUE FAILURES
Name the 6 failed border disputes
- -Poland's seizure of Vilna (1920)
- -Russo Polish War (1920-1)
- -Upper Silesia (1921)
- -Greek-Turkish War (1920-3)
- -Lithuania' seizure of Memel (1923)
- -Corfu Incident (1923)
When was the Dawes Plan?
- 60,000 french and belgium troops in ruhr
- Jan 1923
- 80% coal, 70% steel industry
Hyperinflation after Ruhr Crisis
- 1923, 2000 presses printing money 24 hrs
- unemployment from 2% to 23%
When did Gustav Stresemann become Chancellor?
What was the Dawes Plan?
- -200m loan
- -taxes and bonds earmarked
- -evacuation of Ruhr within a year
- -reparations agency to supervise reparations
- -altered payment schedules, started with 1bn up to 2.5bn in 5 years
- April-May 1922
- international conference to discuss how to promote economic recovery and disarmament
- German and Soviet representatives withdraw to Rapallo Pact
- it failed in significant aspects
Of the 9 independent states, how much of the population were minorities?
19m out of population of 98m
Romania was awarded Translyvania from Hungary. How many magyars were there in Translyvania?
In Czechoslovakia, how many racial groups were there? How many Germans were in the Sudentenland particularly?
6 racial groups. 3m germans.
When Hitler took over Czechoslovakia, what did he award to Poland and Hungary?
Teschen to Poland. Part of Ruthenia to Hungary.
After the Lithuania and Poland conflict over Vilna, when did diplomatic relations between them recover?
The "Chanak Incident"
Turkey went to war successfully with Greece in 1920-3. In the “Chanak Incident” a potential military confrontation in which France and Italy had no intention to fight resulted in the Treaty of Lausanne (1923).
Name the gains of the Treaty of Lausanne 1923
- Turkey gained: Smyrna, Eastern Thrace, part of Armenia and some of the Aegean Islands
- Establishment of international commission to oversee Turkey’s finances
- international control of the straits dropped. The Straits, however, remained demilitarized.
When did Hitler invade Poland as a result of the loss Posen and West Prussia to Poland (and Danzig)?
Name the mandates of France and Britain.
- France - Syria (partitioned to Syria and Lebanon)
- Britain - Palestine, Mesopotamia (newly created Transjordan)
Who ruled transjordan? When was it independent?
What was the only arab state granted independence? What happened as a result?
Saudi Arabia, ruled by Sheriff Hussein. violent protests in 1920-1. To appease anger, Abdullah (Jordan) and Feisal (Iraq) put in charge.
When was iraq independent and join the league?
There were arab jewish tensions between jews and arabs in Palestine. how much did the jewish population grow by?
1918-28, grew by 90,000
Under what treaty did Italy recognise Fiume as an independent city?
Treaty of Rapallo Nov 1920.
When Mussolini came to power in 1922, How did he deal with Dalmatia and Fiume?
Fiume transferred over in 1924 but he recognised Dalmatia as part of Yugoslavia
when was the Locarno Pact?
sep 1925. formally signed in Dec.
In 1933, how many countries signed the Kellog-Briand pact (which was seen as a success)?
when did the Young Plan replace the Dawes Plan?
1929. discussed at Hague Conference in Aug 1929
Terms of the Young Plan
- 300m loan
- lower payments for first 10 years
- reparations reduced to 121bn
- New bank for International settlements in switzerland, instead of the Reparations commission
- no sanctions
- Rhinland Withdrawal by June 1930 (5 years ahead)
When was the wall street crash?
At what conference did League decide to suspend reparation for 3 years after the great depression?
How much were reparations decreased to?
- Jun-July 1932 lausanne conference.
- 3bn marks (2% of original 132bn)
What were unemployment figures for Italy, US and Germany, Japan?
- US - 25% labour force in 1933
- Germany - 8m in 1932 (according to Richard Overy)
- Italy - over 2m in 1933
- Japan - 2.6m in 1930
When did the USA impose tariffs in the great depression? What other countries followed suit with the Tariff war?
- 1930, with the Hawley-Smoot Tariff.
- 1932, Britain had an Imperial Preference System
How did world trade fall during the great depression?
- fell by two-thirds in 1929-32
- By 1938, it was 40% of what it'd been in 1929
What many seats did the Nazis get in 1932 when unemployment was highest at 6m?
37%, largest party
When was conscription announced by Hitler? (he was countered by the stresa front)
How did the great depression impact Japan which led to the invasion of Manchuria in 1931?
- price of silk fell by 23% of 1923 figure. Half of Japan's farmers relied on silk.
- exports fell 50% in 1929-31
When did mussolini sign a pact with hitler?
Oct 1936, Hitler and Mussolini signed Rome-Berlin Axis, friendship and trade agreement
as a result of french preoccupation with economic recovery, when did it seriously rearm?
What was the French steel production in 1938 compared to 1928?
steel production in 1938 was one third below 1928
How did US isolationism hinder europian recovery?
July 1933, USA blocked agreement of World Economic Conference in London by refusing to take joint action in stabilizing currency rates
In the arms race, how many planes and tanks did USSR build?
1936, 16,000 planes and 19,000 tanks
When did Rearmament accelerate for Russia, Britain, France, Germany, Japan and Italy?
- Germany and France, 1936
- Russia, 1937
- Britain, 1938
- Japan and Italy, 1938
Sep 1931, blamed chinese for blowing up south manchurian railway.
when was the establishment of the Manchukuo?
Mar 1932. Sep 1932 recognised by Japan
Why and when did Japan walk out of league?
March 1933. Because league opted for 'non-recognition' of Manchukuo as an independent state with the Lytton Report in Oct 1932
When was the Lytton commission established and why?
Dec 1931, 3 months after Mukhen Incident. it aimed to investigate the Mukhen Incident and buy more time for the Japanese
When did Italy attack Abyssinia?
Oct 1935-Dec 1936
Wal-Wal Incident, when was it?
how many times did Haile Selassie of Abyssinia appeal to the League?
When and where did Mussolini begin to attack Abyssinia?
Oct 1935, he attacked the Eritrea
When were sanctions implemented on Italy after the Abyssinian attack?
18 Nov 1935, 6 weeks after Mussolini invaded
The Hoare-Laval pact
Dec 1935, Hoare (GB) and Laval (F), made a secret agreement in paris to place two-thirds of Abyssinia under Italian control. They were forced to resign after it was leaked to the press.