Jazz Final

  1. Cool Jazz
    Lighter, laid back attitude
  2. Third Stream
    Music that synthesizes the characteristics of classical music and other traditions. May involve composition or improvisation, or both classical and Jazz composers contributed. Not necessarily "Cool"
  3. Hard Bop
    Largely indistinguishable from Bebop, hard-swinging and syncopated rhythms, a blues basis, some experimentation with meter, and long solos. Hard bop favors a heavy, dark, impassioned timbre, cool jazz aims for a light timbre, hard bop is generally louder and faster than cool Jazz, it relies less on the trappings of composition and arrangement.
  4. Thelonious Monk
    He discarded traditional concepts of melody in Jazz, current approaches to rhythm, the excess characteristic of Bop, and harmonic improvisation. His style is deeply rooted in the Blues, focus on logic and consistency, and lots of syncopation.
  5. Gil Evans
    His compositional style is individual/idiosyncratic, though influenced by the middle works of Ellington, expanded orchestration using, used a variety of instrumental combinations to produce unique timbres, restrained use of vibrato, use of a variety of textures, advanced harmonic language, balance of composed and improvisational elements.
  6. Goerge Russell
    His association with Modalism involved improvisation using the lydian scale from which each chord derives, allowing improvisation to focus on melodies rather than harmonies. Freed Jazz musicians from a reliance on 32-bar popular song form and the 12-bar Blues.
  7. Charels Mingus
    His compositional style incorporates elements from, Gospel, New Orleans polyphony, The Blues, Ragtime, Classical /music, swing, Bop, etc. Frequent changes of texture, striking dissonance, collective improvisation, overlapping riffs, fondness for the timbres of low instruments.
  8. Miles Davis
    His trumpet style is characterized by lyricism, focused on melody and timbre, played fewer notes in the middle register, which created relaxed, tuneful melodies, initially lacked the virtuosity of players like Dizzy Gillespie, though his technique improved over time. He birthed cool Jazz.
  9. Miles Davis's Sextet/Kind of Blue
    The sextet experimented with Modal Jazz; Davis's most celebrated album develops from these efforts.
  10. Modal Jazz
    Use of scales other than major or minor. Scales/modes used were those of the Medieval Catholic church, as well as those of cultures outside Western Europe and its diaspora, rarely involves strict adherence to the modes. Slow moving harmonies.
  11. John Coltrane
    • After being introduced to Modal Jazz, Coltrane began improvising by systematically varying motives/ideas during the course of a solo; this ultimately allowed him to avoid the use of licks.
    • Coltrane also experimented with Avant-garde Jazz even though it was mostly embraced by younger musicians as well as lesser known performers who had been considered weird.
  12. Avant-garde/Free Jazz
    Aimed to liberate Jazz from, repeating chord progressions, previously-composed melodies, esp. Tin Pan Alley standards, the swing groove, the predictable roles for the players/instruments of the ensemble.
  13. Loft
    Open to inspiration from any/all styles of music including, pop and rock, funk, samba, Word Music and folksong, 20th-century Classical music, etc.
  14. Fusion
    Referes to Jazz-Rock hybrids. Jazz-Soul, Jazz-Pop, Jazz-Funk, Jazz-Folk, etc.
  15. Soul Jazz
    Combines aspects of the Blues and Bop harmony, as well as the shout and backbeat rhythms of gospel.
  16. Hammond organ
    The Hammond organ intended to replicate the sound of a pipe organ, but comparatively compact/portable. So, it made incorporating the traditional organ sound a lot more convenient.
  17. Frank Sinatra
    Followed the phrasing of the words rather than the melody, which imparted an expressivity to his performances, sense of swing, though not in easy manner of Jazz.
  18. Latin Jazz
    Jazz that incorporates elements of Latin-American music, esp. its dance rhythms.
  19. The Latin groove
    It is irregular and syncopated rhythms, subdivides the beat into equal halves.
  20. Cubop
    A style of Jazz that fuzes Bebop and traditional elements of Cuban music; distinguished from the more general category of Latin Jazz by its specifically Cuban basis.
  21. Bossa Nova
    A type of Brazilian popular music. Stan Getz participated in the recording of a Bossa Nova project, his participation lead to record companies agreeing to record a record.
  22. Funk
    Facilitates Jazz-rock fusion.
  23. Smooth Jazz
    A hybrid style, while simultaneously connoting something "innocuous, listener-friendly" Blends Jazz, Funk, and the romantic tunes of Soul. Musicians, broadcasters, and record companies formed symbiotic, profit-driven triangle perpetuating the style. Welcomed by radio stations who purported to play Jazz, but had playlists dominated by Sou, Blues, and Blues-Rock in order to maintain an audience.
  24. Jam Band Jazz
    Musical characteristics include, use of extended improvisation, long sets in performance, and crossing of genre/stylistic boundaries.
  25. Acid Jazz
    Fusion of Soul Jazz and Hip Hop.
  26. Willie Bunk Johnson
    Played the trumpet active during the New Orleans period whose career was resurrected after the publication of Jazzmen.
  27. Wynton Marsalis
    Marsalis insisted that in order for something to be Jazz, it must incorporate swing rhythms and the Blues, as well as call and response.
Card Set
Jazz Final
History and Techniques