Mitosis and Meiosis

  1. Function of Mitosis
    asexual reproduction, growth, create two identical daughter cells
  2. Chromosomes
    genetic material of cells stored in the nucleus
  3. What are chromosomes made of?
  4. How many chromosomes do humans have?
  5. Mitosis: Interphase
    resting and growing
  6. Mitosis: S-phase
    duplicate all chromosomes
  7. Mitosis: Prophase
    nuclear envelope fragments, mitotic spindle starts to form
  8. Mitotic spindle
    microtubule structure that physically separates the chromosomes
  9. Mitosis: Metaphase
    all chromosomes line up down the middle
  10. Mitosis: Anaphase
    duplicated chromosomes are pulled apart
  11. Mitosis: Telophase
    nuclear envelopes form around separated sets of chromosomes and cleavage furrow forms
  12. Mitosis: Cytokinesis
    cell is physically divided into two
  13. Meiosis: Prophase
    homologous chromosomes pair up (synapse) and then swap info (crossing over)
  14. Meiosis: Metaphase
    homologous pairs line up side by side along the metaphase plate
  15. Meiosis: Anaphase
    homologous pairs separate
  16. Meiosis: Telophase
    nuclear envelopes begin to form around each set of chromosomes and the cleavage furrow forms
  17. Meiosis: Cytokinesis
    cell is physically pulled apart into two
  18. How many cells are at the end of Mitosis?
  19. How many cells are at the end of Meiosis?
  20. After a cell is split into two during Meiosis, what happens next?
    They split again, but like Mitosis
  21. Centromere
    little button in the middle of a chromosome
  22. Chromatid
    stuff inside a long part of a chromosome
  23. What does P53 do?
    stop a cell division at G1 when DNA is damage, attempts repair, and destroys if can't be repaired.
  24. Cancer
    uncontrolled cell growth (too much mitosis), form tumors, and undergo metastasis (spreading of cells)
  25. Oncogenes
    mutated DNA that should normally control the cell cycle
  26. Somatic cells = _____ cells
    Body cells
  27. XX=
    • XX= girl
    • XY= boy
  28. Mitosis: ______ cells
    Meiosis: ______ cells
    • Mitosis: body cells
    • Meiosis: sex cells
  29. Pairs 1-22: ______
    Pair 23: _______
    • 1-22: autosomes
    • 23: sex chromosomes
  30. Autosomes
    have info about body traits
  31. Homologous chromosomes
    similar chromosomes (one from each parent) that have info about the same trait at the same location
  32. Picture of chromosome pairs
  33. Diploid cells have ___ sets of chromosomes and Haploid cells have ___ sets of chromosomes.
    2; 4
  34. Diploid cell=
    body cell (46 chromosomes)
  35. Haploid cell
    sex cells (23 chromosomes)
  36. Function of Meiosis:
    sexual reproduction and produce 4 diverse gametes
  37. 3 ways to have genetic diversity
    • crossing over
    • independent assortment
    • fertilization
  38. Crossing over
    exchange of genetic material between homologous pairs
  39. Independent assortment
    homologous pairs can line up and separate in a random manner
  40. Fertilization
    when gametes fuse
  41. Nondisjunction
    chromosomes fail to separate correctly
  42. Aneuploidy
    cells have too many or too few chromosomes
  43. Monosomy
    diploid individual has only one of a type of chromosome
  44. Trisomy
    an individual has three of a type of chromosome
Card Set
Mitosis and Meiosis
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