1.1 ★ Know the basic characteristics of the formed elements of the blood and what do they derive from.
- Blood is connective tissue.
Name the four tissue types and what type is blood
Epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous.
Blood is CONNECTIVE
24. ★ Be able to differentiate primary sex organs from accessory sex organs both in males and females.
- Ovaries & testes are primary.
- Secondary: vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, mammary ducts
- Prostate, penis, seminal vesicles, and Cowper glands (which like seminal vesicles secrete an alkaline lubricant that protects the sperm from the acidity of the penis and the vagina as well as from friction damage during ejaculation.
25. ★ Know what are the functions of testosterone.
- Testosterone is the major androgen (masculinizing hormone) produced in humans,
- Secondary male sex characteristics: hair & voice as well as accessory organs such as the prostate, seminal vesicles and adult male sexual behavior.
- Regulation of metabolism. (It is an anabolic steroid %rarr; male musculature
- High blood levels will inhibit the secretion gonadotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus, which will in turn affect the release of gonadotropins FSH and LH. It is LH that stimulates the testes to produce and secrete testosterone. That’s the negative feedback loop.
- Produced by testicular interstitial or Leydig cells.
26. ★ Know what is the temperature required for sperm production compared to the normal body temperature.
- Healthy sperm production occurs at about 3°C below normal body temperature.
- The cremaster muscle under ANS control raises and lowers the testes to maintain this ideal temperature.
27. ★ Be able to describe the functions of epididymis.
- The epididymis is a barely macroscopic tube about 20’ long that is coiled/looped within a pouch located behind the testis.
- Sperm learns to swim and mature for 1 to 3 weeks here with nutrients from the epididymis which eventually becomes part of the seminal fluid.
- After 3 weeks any unused sperm break down and are reabsorbed.
28. ★ Know whether or not, sperm may remain in the vas deferens for over 1 month with no loss of fertility.
- As noted for the epididymis, sperm that goes unused there breaks down and is reabsorbed. But, apparently if it makes it into the vas deferens, it can be stored there for over a month with no loss in fertility.
29. ★ Know what is the male gland that secretes a fructose sugar used as an energy source for sperm.
- Around 50 make it to the egg, but only 1 can fertilize it. The fluid is needed as a medium to swim in.
- Composition and source of seminal fluid components:
- 60% fructose sugar – seminal vesicles.
- Less than 5% from Bulbourethral Glands.
- 30% from the prostate containing alkaline substance to counteract the acidity of the vagina and urethra.
- 10% (Titi: less than 5%) from testis and epididymis.
30. ★ Know what is the gland that secretes an alkaline substance that constitutes about 30% of the seminal fluid.
31. ★ Know where the greatest amount of seminal fluid is secreted.
- 60% (containing fructose sugar) from seminal vesicles.
32. ★ Know what is formed from the process of spermatogenesis.
: Prophase, metaphase, Anaphase and telophase), that is Meiosis I and Meiosis II, to form four haploid spermatids.
- Each primary spermatocyte (46 chromosomes) will undergo 2 complete meiosis divisions (all phases
- Note: the same is true for Oogenesis resulting in four ootids.
33. ★ Describe erectile physiology and ejaculatory physiology.
- Under the ANS system.
- Erection via parasympathetic control (rest & repair)
- Ejaculation via sympathetic control (fight or flight)
34.1 ★ oligospermia:
- Disruption of the sperm-producing function of the seminiferous tubules can result in decreased sperm production, a condition called oligospermia.
34.2 ★ phimosis:
- A condition where the foreskin fits so tightly over the glans (head of penis) that it cannot retract. It is usually solved via circumcision, which:
- Makes phimosis impossible
- Reduces infections
- Increases sensitivity
- Without circumcision, Titi says there are about 80-90% more premature ejaculation. This strikes me as counter to the “increased sensitivity” that comes with circumcision.
34.3 ★ sterility:
- A total absence of sperm production.
34.4 ★ cryptorchidism:
- Undescended testes, which normally descend via the inguinal canal, the same canal through which the vas deferens travels.
34.5 ★ benign prostatic hypertrophy:
- This is a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate that can be accompanied by slightly elevated levels of PSA.
- Growth in these cases is from the central region.
- If the growth begins at the cortex, it is always malignant.
34.6 ★ inguinal hernia:
- Occurs when the intestines press through the inguinal canal and pressure the testis.
- The intestines can become obstructed resulting in death.
- They may be congenital or they may be caused by lifting heavy objects where high pressures are generated by constricting the abdominal muscles.
34.7 ★ impotence:
- Failure to achieve an erection of the penis sufficient to permit sexual intercourse, or ED erectile dysfunction.
- Most ED drugs affect blood flow to the spongy cavernous tissue of the penis via levels of nitric oxide, a local regulator and neurotransmitter that controls tension in smooth muscles in vessels of the penis.
34.8 ★ hydrocele:
- It is one of the causes of swelling of the scrotum and is an accumulation of a fluid called hydrocele.
- It may be congenital or in adults it is often caused when fluid produced by the serous membrane lining of the scrotum is not absorbed properly. In which case, it is often caused by trauma or infection.
34.9 ★ prostate cancer:
- Many of the 32,000 men who die each year from prostate cancer – the most common non-skin cancer among American men could have been saved if the cancer were detected earlier.
- PSA is often used in conjunction with rectal exams, but PSA can be elevated in men without prostate cancer and may not be elevated in some men that do have it.
35. ★ Know when the normal phenomenon of "crossing over" occurs.
- ”Crossing over” is a normal phenomenon in meiosis, but is one of the most important events of meiosis because it allows variation in genes.
- It occurs during prophase I of meiosis (the pachytene stage) in a process called synapsis.
36. ★ Know what is the main difference between oogenesis and spermatogenesis.
- In spermatogenesis 4 spermatids will have turned into 4 spermatozoa.
- In oogenesis only 1 ovum is produced and 3 polar bodies (smaller ovum with insufficient cytoplasm to be viable. This is assumed to be so that one of the four haploid ootids will have the maximum amount of cytoplasm.)
37. ★ Describe the anatomical portions of the uterus.
- FUNDUS where the fallopian tubes enter.
- BODY – major mid portion.
- CERVIX or neck that projects into the vagina.
38. ★ Know the layers of the uterus and what is the layer of the uterus from which tissue is sloughed during menstruation.
- Perimetrium is the outmost layer and is a serous membrane. The uterus is retroperitoneal and so this membrane is part of the parietal peritoneum> It is incomplete because it covers none of the cervix and only part of the body. This is clinically significant because operations can be performed on this organ with the same risk of infection for procedures that cut through the peritoneum.
- Myometrium is a middle thick layer of smooth muscle.
- Endometrium is the inner mucus membrane lining and it is composed of three layers:: Stratus Functionalis is the superficial layer and it shed to make way for a fresh layer each cycle. According to the book, this is composed of two layers: Stratum compactum a surface layer of partially ciliated, simple columnar epithelium, and Stratum spongiosum a middle layer of loose connective tissue.
- The (Titi)
- Stratus basalis, a dense inner layer that connects the endometrium to the myometrium. Per Titi this layer is unresponsive to ovarian hormones.
39. ★ Know whether or not, the clitoris is homologous to the corpora cavernosa and the glans of the penis in the male.
40. ★ Know when ovulation is most likely to occur during a 28-day menstrual cycle. (Day of the cycle).
41. ★ Know whether or not, the ovum can live for up to 3 days.
- No. It will be degraded within 24 hours in the fallopian tube if not fertilized.
42. ★ Know where fertilization of an ovum most often occurs.
- Most often in the fallopian tube.
43. ★ Know what is the name of the so-called "ovulating hormone".
- LH or luteinizing hormone
44. ★ Know what happens shortly before menstruation, in terms of hormone(s) production.
- Growth of the follicle in the ovary releases estrogen, that rises to a peak 1 day before ovulation, i.e. day 13.
- Under control of the hypothalamus via GnRH to the adenohypophysis, LH and FSH rise abruptly to a peak causing ovulation.
- If no fertilization:
- Corpus luteum will degenerate.
- Plasma progesterone will plummet.
- Stimulus for maintaining thick endometrium will disappear.
45. ★ Know what is the average age at which menopause occurs.
- 45-50 is “normal”
- 38-58 is “practical”
46. ★ Know what phase is not a synonym for the premenstrual phase.
- Estrogen phase is not.
- Lowest level of estrogen could be called post-ovulatory, i.e. luteal.
47. ★ Know how the female reproductive system differs from the male reproductive system.
- Both sexes produce sex hormones and sex gametes.
- Only women protect the developing fetus and provide for its nutrition.
48. ★ Know what produces the largest amount of progesterone.
49. ★ Know what is the name for the structure known as the "bag of waters".
50. ★ Know what are the functions of the placenta, and be able to recognize what is not.
- Respiratory organ
- Excretory organ
- Endocrine organ
- Nutritional organ
- NOT a barrier for toxins such as alcohol.
51. ★ Know by what month of the fetal development all organ systems are formed and functioning.
52.1 ★ Placenta previa:
- If the blastocyst implants near the cervix and the placenta grows too close to the cervical opening, the normal dilation and softening of the cervix during the third trimester can cause painless bleeding which can be life-threatening to both mother and offspring.
52.1 ★ Menopause:
- Climacteric is when the menstrual flow ceases.
52.1 ★ Endometriosis:
- Is characterized by functioning endometrial tissue outside of the uterus where it reacts normally to ovarian hormones, i.e. growth and sloughing off. It can often be painful from inflammation and infecting of the displaced tissue.
52.1 ★ Spontaneous abortion:
- A miscarriage is the loss of an embryo or fetus before the 20th week or a fetus weighing less than 500 g or 1.1 pounds.
- After 20 weeks the delivery of a lifeless infant is termed a stillbirth.
52.1 ★ Salpingitis:
- Blocked uterine tube; can be caused by PID; it is an obstruction of the lumen and a marked dilation at the end of the tube caused by fluid that cannot escape.
52.1 ★ Pap smear:
- George N. Papanicolaou (Greek doc) – Cells swabbed from the uterine cervix and checked for abnormalities (cancer) under a microscope.
52.1 ★ Preeclampsia:
- PIH (pregnancy–induced hypertension) is normal, but in about 6-8% of all pregnancies PIH may progress to this disorder characterized by acute onset of hypertension after the 24th week and accompanied by proteinuria and edema. It can result in stroke or fetal malnutrition. It can progress to eclampsia, a life-threatening form of toxemia.
52.1 ★ Amenorrhea:
- Absence or normal menstruation.
52.1 ★ Candidiasis:
- An opportunistic infection of the vagina with the yeast Candida albicans. It is characterized by a whitish discharge – a symptom known as leucorrhea.
52.1 ★ Tubal pregnancy:
- Implantation of the blastocyst in the uterine tubes is the most common type of ectopic pregnancy.
52.1 ★ STD:
- Sexually transmitted Disease
52.1 ★ Genital Herpes:
- refers to a genital infection by herpes simplex virus. It cannot be cured.