The USSR was technologically inferior and needed Western help in building industry. What was one statement that Lenin made at the international conference at Genoa in 1922 which supported this?
“We go to it because trade with capitalist countries…is unconditionally necessary for us”
What did Stalin state (at the 18th Party Congress of March 1939) that implied the unwillingness of England and France to stop Hitler?
“England and France rejected the policy of collective security…reveals an eagerness not to hinder Germany…from embroiling herself in a war with the Soviet Union”
When was the Comintern established?
When was the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk?
Even when Lenin had to put world revolution on hold during the Civil War, what were Lenin's view on world revolution? Quote him.
“the victory of the proletarian revolution on a world scale is assured”.
- poles invaded Russia
- Red army pushed them back Lenin saw the change to use Poland to as ’the red bridge into Europe’ and to aid the revolution in Germany.
- failure to take Warsaw, all attempts in revolution in Germany and Hungary collapsed
- Forced Lenin to accept peaceful coexistence rather than spreading revolution
When was the Treaty of Rapallo?
When were trade agreements with Britain signed?
How many conditions were drawn for the Comintern membership of Communist parties of Europe?
How many countries attended the 2nd international Congress?
Name the Anti-communist group in germany
Association for the Fight Against Bolshevism
Which Bolshevik leaders of the government also lead the Comintern and lead to diplomatic difficulties?
Zinoviev, Bukharin, Trotsky
When was the Curzon Ultimatum?
1923, British Foreign Secretary, Curzon, infuriated by activities of Soviet agents in Persia, Afghanistan and India, threatened to cancel the Anglo-Soviet trade agreement of 1921. The Soviets agreed to the ‘Curzon ultimatum’ to abandon activities.
The Zinoviev letter
- forged letter supposedly from the Comintern to the British Communist Party instructing them to conduct propaganda in the armed forces and elsewhere - published just before british general election. It indicated how British opinion perceived threat, new Conservative government suspended all dealings with Soviet government throughout 1925.
When was the British General Strike which the USSR mistook as a political uprising?
How was the British Trade Unions Congress
The Russian Central council of Trade unions sent a cheque for 26,000 pounds to the Trades Union Congress. TUC sent it back to prevent British government claiming that they were in pay of Bolsheviks. All Soviet Policy achieved was encouraging anti-Soviets in Britain.
The Arcos Raid
1927, police mounted full scale raid on premises of Russian trade mission in London, suspected of being a Soviet spy ring - led to breaking off of diplomatic relations.
How much did Russia spend to aid the German communist uprising?
1922, 47m marks preparing for revolution in Germany for German risings in 1921-3
When and why was the Treaty of Berlin Signed?
It was signed in 1926 (When Germany joined League) to reaffirm the Treaty of Rapallo - since Germany had signed the Locarno treaties in 1925.
By 1932, what percentage of Russian imports came from Germany? (as a result of the Rapallo alliance?)
How many more Comintern congresses were there after Lenin's death 1924
What was Stalin's view of spreading revolution abroad
“One Soviet tractor is worth ten good foreign Communists”.
Who were the leaders of the national communist parties of Germany, France and Britain?
- Germany - Thaelmann
- France - Thorez
- Britain - Pollitt
- they all came from working class backgrounds as they were more likely to be obedient.
How did leadership of the comintern change?
- it changed with political situation.
- Zinoviev - 1919-26
- Molotov (faithful to Stalin)
When did the German Communist party decide to remove Thaelmann? What were the consequences of the Comintern's response?
- 1928, following financial scandal.
- Comintern opposed, it weakened the leaders' standing in the party
When were foreign communist parties instructed to denounce social democratic parties as 'social fascists' beacuse they cooperated with bourgeois parties?
What effect did this have on Germany?
1928, time of the great turn.
The KPD was instructed to attack social democrats, dividing the German party just when the Nazis were growing stronger. Stalin rejected pleas for joint action by the left in Germany against the Nazis – contributing to Hitler’s rise to power.
When was the USSR officially recognised by the USA?
When did Japan takeover Manchuria which threatened Soviet Union?
When Hitler came to power in Germany in 1933, when did Germany's military undertakings in the USSR end?
When did the Treaty of Rapallo end? and How?
- Jan 1934, Hitler made non-aggression pact with Poland
- John Hiden says it ‘marked the virtual close of normal political exchange between Berlin and Moscow’.
- This was because the treaty of Rapallo was based on the hope to regain territory lost to Poland.
When did USSR join League of nations?
who was an active member?
(However, relations with Germany never broken off. 1935-7 there were negotiations on improving economic and political relations)
When were the Mutual assistance pacts against Germany aggression between Czech,France and USSR made?
What did Litvinov comment about the pact between Czech and France?
“One should not place any serious hopes on the pact in the sense of real military aid in the event of war For us the pact has predominantly a political significance, reducing the chance of war on the part of Germany and also of Poland and Japan”.
When did Comintern seek to create a popular front with Western social democrats to contain fascism?
How were the popular fronts of 1935 in France and Spain unsuccessful?
- Spain - gave the fascists (right) an excuse for rebellion which began Civil war
- France - Leon Blum’s government didn’t last long, wasn’t able to turn pact with USSR into military cooperation.
When did the Spanish Civil start?
Armed rebellion of army leaders who didn't support left wing popular front in July 1936.
Civil war of Barcelona 1937.
- Communists who fought with the republicans in the Spanish Civil War fought against the POUM (semi-Trotskyite communists) and Anarchists.
- NKVD crushed POUM in Spain, so Communism became influential - this was the result of Soviet support.
When was the Nazi-Soviet Pact?
It referred back to the Treaty of Berlin (1926). Hitler wanted to attack Poland without Russia's interruption.
Britain was reluctant to stop German agression, and didn't want to negotiate with USSR in stopping them. When did Hitler occupy the Rhineland and forced Anschluss on Austria?
- Rhineland - 1936 (Spanish civil war)
- Anschluss - 1938
When Germany invaded Czechoslovakia, when and what conference was called up that the USSR was not invited to? (broke the pact between France, USSR and Czech)
Munich conference 1938.
When did Germany invade Czechoslovakia?
Anglo-French Guarantee to Poland
31 March 1919, after Germany invades Czech, Britain and France agrees to protect Poland from USSR, and thus breaking off potential alliance with USSR
Quote what Neville Chamberlain regards of the USSR's military ability in his letter to his sister in mar 1939.
“I have no belief whatever in her[Russia] ability to maintain an effective offensive, even if she wanted to. And I distrust her motives”
Nov 1936 Pact between Germany and Japan directly against the USSR
Define the Secret Protocol of the Nazi-Soviet Pact.
- defined future spheres of influence
- USSR had: part of east Poland, Estonia, Latvia and Bessarabia (part of Romania)
A new Nazi-Soviet treaty agreed on 28 Sep 1939. In return for giving Germany slightly more of Poland than was originally agreed, Lithuania transferred to Soviet sphere of influence.
When did Germany invade Poland?
When did the USSR join in?
- Germany invaded Poland on 1 Sep 1939.
- USSR joined on 17 Sep attacking the east.
Name two historians of the German School. They believed that Stalin always wanted to cooperate with Germany to break up Europe
- Gerherd Weinberg
- Robert Tucker
Describe Robert Tucker's view on Russia'smotives for alliance with Germany
Tucker argues that Stalin was following ambitious and aggressive policy where he manoeuvred capitalist states into a war which the USSR would emerge unscathed and in a strong position to expand territorially. Collective security was a mask to attract Hitler. The purges were necessary to remove opposition to a deal with Hitler. The main focus was to tie relations with Hitler’s Germany.
Quote parts of Stalin's speech to Politburo in 1939 which agrees with the German school of thought that his motives were to create war between the European countries
“It is in the interests of the USSR…that war breaks out between the Reich and the capitalist Anglo-French bloc. We must do everything possible to ensure that this war lasts as long as possible to ensure the exhaustion of both parties.”
What did G Roberts (Collective School) describe the Nazi-Soviet pact as? (The Collective school believed the USSR aimed for collective security)
“reactions to the dynamic events rather than the result of prior decision or planned policy”
M. Pankrashova and V. Sipols (collective school), how did they explain why Stalin signed pact with Germany?
“the negotiations showed that Britain and France had no desire to conclude a pact…the only way to preserve the security of the USSR…was for the Soviet government to accept the proposal made at that particular time by the German government to sign a non-aggression pact”
What does Khrushchev remember hearing from Stalin to the Politburo which supports the theory that Stalin was improvising the foreign relations - he was neutral?
“Stalin told us that…We would be able to stay neutral and save our strength. Then we would see what happened”
Quote P.M.H. Bell which shows the neutrality of the Russians in making negotiations and improvising, unlike the views of the collective, german nor soviet school.
"The competition was decided on substance, not on method“
Name some historians of the Collective Security school.
- A.J.P. Taylor
- Geoffrey roberts
- Jonathan Haslam
- Teddy Uldricks
- M. Pankrashova