Urinary system

  1. Kidney function
    • Removal of waste, purification
    • Controls blood volume, & electrolites
    • Filters 200 liters of blood a day
    • Right lower than left
  2. Kidney Structure
    • Hilus-cleft in kidney
    • Sinus- space made by hilus
    • Pelvis-tube that leaves kidney
  3. Renin
    Hormon that controls BP, secreted by kidney
  4. Eyethopoitine
    Blood cell production
  5. Kidney layers
    • Outer-renal fascia
    • Middle-fat capsule
    • Inner-renal capsule
  6. Ptosis
    Lose of fat that supports kidney-prevents removal of urine, causes hydro-nephrosis
  7. Hydro-nephrosis
    Death of the kidney due to drowning in urine
  8. Necrosis
    Sudden death of tissue
  9. Apoptosis
    Programed death of a cell-RBC
  10. Dark Cortex
    Dark thick edge of kidney
  11. Medulla
    • Tunneled, center, light area of kidney
    • Has 8 lobes that lead to pelvis
  12. Lobes
    In medulla, filters blood and sends it to the minor calyx then to major calyx
  13. Pyelitis
    Infection of the pelvis that leaves kidney
  14. Nephron structure
    • Bowmans capsule-proximal convoluted curve-loop of henle-distal convoluted curve-collecting duct
    • Millions in kidney
  15. Renal vessel
    • Afferent and Efferent
    • Vessel twists itself so it can narrow and filter
  16. Efferent pathway
    • Filtering starts here where vessels are the narrowest
    • Just wastes goes through no blood vessels
  17. Glomerulus
    Bundles of blood vessels in the Bowmans capsule formed by efferent vessels
  18. Vasorecta
    • Blood supply to the loop of henle
    • Water and salt are absorbed in this area so you don't dehydrate
  19. Juxtaglomerular Cells
    • Maintain blood pressure
    • Secretes Renin-detects drop in BP sends signal to release hormone to increase BP
  20. Macula Densa Cells
    • Portion of the distal convoluted tubule that twists its way back up to Bowmans capsule
    • Chemical receptor- senses salts and tells organs to regulate
  21. Mesangial Cells
    Phagocytosis-eats invading cells
  22. Podocyte
    • Small blood vessels with fenestrations
    • Wrap around blood vessels in glomerulus squeezes blood vessel to remove wastes
  23. Fenestrations
    • Holes on the blood vessels in the glomerulus
    • Water and salt are the only thing that can go through
  24. Filtration Slits
    Area where salt and water are squeezed through to be removed from body
  25. Afferent Arteriole
    • Brings blood
    • 18mm of pressure
  26. Glomerular pressure
    Pressure increases to 55mm increasing filtration
  27. Hydrostatic Pressure
    • Blood and its pressure
    • Filtration rate 120-125mm per min
  28. Sieve layer
    • Particles 3 nanometers or less
    • No blood cells only ions, water, protein can pass
  29. Filtration Dependencies
    • Surface are
    • Permeability
    • Net pressure
  30. Renin
    • Controls BP
    • Converts Angiotensinogen to Angiontensingen 2
    • Controls absorption of sodium which increases H2O absorption back into blood which increases BP
  31. Salt and Water relation
    Salt increases BP which increases water absorption
  32. Anuria
    • Decrease in urine production
    • Kidney failure 50ml no reabsorption
  33. Passive transport
    • Water reabsorption
    • No energy
  34. Aquaporins
    • Doors or channels that water travels through to get reabsorbed
    • At beginning of nephron
  35. Obligatory reabsorption
    Water is obligated to be reabsorbed here by channels to get into blood
  36. Uria, creatin, uric acid
    • ALL must leave in urine
    • Formed by break down of proteins & nucleic acids
  37. Osmolarity
    Amount of solute in solvent
  38. Vesspressin
    Tells you when to pee-which tells the # of aquaporins to increase which increases the amount of water in blood
  39. Facultated water
    Water put back into blood by the pressure of ADH-vesspressin
  40. Counter Current exchange mechanism
    Determines where to produce diluted or concentrated urine
  41. Renal Clearance
    • Checking of kidney function
    • Done by measuring carbs
  42. Urine
    • 95% water PH 6, alkaline Specific gravity 1.035
    • Acetone=diabetes
  43. Diuretic
    Increase urination
  44. Dialysis
    Blood filtration machine
  45. Horse shaped kidney
    Horse shaped kidney out of both kidneys
  46. Hypospadias
    Opening of urethra is on top of penis
  47. Polisitic Kidney
    Cyst that collects urine that can burst and leak into parietal cavity and cause infection
  48. Ureter
    Pulses to send out urine
  49. Kidney stone
    • Crystal stone that tear the lumen
    • Salt, calcium, magnesium, uric acid crystals
  50. Lithotrypsy
    Ultra sound waves to break up crystals
  51. Ureter layers
    • Lumen
    • Muscularis
    • Mucosa
  52. Bladder
    Transitional epithelial cells
  53. Internal Urethral Sphincter
  54. External Urethral Sphincter
    Voluntary action
  55. Urethratis
    Inflammation of urethra
  56. Cystitis
    Inflammation of bladder
  57. Dysuria
    No urine output
  58. Uria
    Less urine output
  59. Micturition
    Normal sending out of urine
  60. Urine amount
    500 to 600 ml per pee
Card Set
Urinary system
Urinary system, kidney