Water Soluable vitamins
- Can easily be lost when boil and storage
- added to "fortified, enriched" foods
- Most act as coenzymes
- bound to proteins in foods
- absorbed in small intestines, circulate to liver via blood.
- NOT COMMON toxicty, except for B6 (pyridoxine); most pee out.
Thiamin - B1, "Acetyl Coenzyme A"
- Has Antithiamin factors - coffee, raw fish, berries
- Deficiency: BeriBeri
- Alcoholism - blocks active transport of thiamin
Riboflavin - B2 "REDOX"
- Coenzyme, BETA - Oxidation
- Deficiency: TIRENESS, Ariboflavinosis, cracked mouth
Niacin -B3 "Needed for Glycolysis & Citric acid (NAD+)"
- Tryptophan makes B3
- Deficiency ---- Pellegra (4 D's - death, dermatitis, diahrrea, dementia)
Panthothenic Acid- B5 "COENZYME A, "
- - Glycolysis and Citric cycle.
- No Deficiency
Pyridoxal Phosphate - B6 "COenzyme, involves in amino acid"
- tryptophan - niacin and heme production
- Deficiency - Mircocytic, hypochromic anemia
- Toxicity - severe neurological effect, numbness, peripheral apathy. Should not be taken a large amt in supplement.
Biotin - B7 "Carboxylation"
- Carboxylation reaction; KREB cycle
- Food - nuts, egg yolk
- Deficiency - AVIDIN -RARE ---- Eating raw egg white can bind to biotin, making it unavailable to absorb.
- Can be dangerous in infants. Neurological issues
Folate - Folacin "Methylation"
- Single Carbon Transfer
- Hemocysteine to Methionine (need B12)
- Deficiency --- Megaloblatic, Macrocytic anemia (immature large RBC)
- Disease - Spina Bifida: Neura; tube defect. Spinal brain column.
- RDA's - Adult, 400, pregos, 600
Cobalamin - B12 "microflora"
- similar to Biotin,
- Deficiency: intrinsic factor can lead to deficiency or low intake.
- Pernicious Anemia - Autoimmuned
- Secondary folate deficiency (megaloblastic and macrocytic), if treated for folate defiency, B12 untreated can lead to demensia.
Vita C "Antioxidant"
- involves collagen
- enhance absorption of Iron
- Defiency: Scurvy
- Smokers need to take more Vita C
- Conditionally essential for infants