1. Abramham
    • Father of great nation
    • makes a convenant with God: in exchange for recognition of this God, Abraham and his descendants are blessed and promised land
    • God asked Abraham to sacrific son Isaac
  2. YHWH
    Name for God as revealed to Moses

    • (Hebrew, "I am" or "I will be"). Sacred name of God as revealed to
    • Moses. Also known as the Tetragrammaton. It is considered too holy to be
    • pronounced, and is usually replaced by Adonai in Torah readings.
  3. Moses
    • Born to slaves in Egypt but raised by an Egyptian princess
    • Encountered a burning bush that was not consumed by the flames - Exodus
    • God revealed the Ten Commandments to Moses, and many more religious and ethical guidelines in the Torah ("the Law")
  4. Moses revieved the 10 Commendemts on Mount Sinai
    Worship no other gods.

    Do not worship idols.

    Do not misuse the name of the Lord.

    Keep the Sabbath holy.

    Honor your father and mother.

    Do not murder.

    Do not commit adultery.

    Do not steal.

    Do not give false testimony

    Do not covet.
  5. Saul
    First king of the Hebrews
  6. David
    • Saul's successor
    • makes Jeruslem a capital
  7. Solomon
    • David's son and successor
    • built palace for self and God
  8. Tanakh
    • Hebrew Bible, acronym for: Torah, Nevi'im, Ketuvim
    • The Jewish Bible
  9. Torah
    • (law) "Teachings, law"
    • 5 books of Moses (Pentateuch): Genesis Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy ("Second Law")
    • it technically means the first five books of the Tanakh
    • The first five books of the Jewish Bible. Also known as the Five Books of Moses or the Pentateuch.
  10. Nevi'im
    • (Prophets) Second of the three major section of Hebrew Bible
    • 21 books of narritive and prophecy
    • Second section of the Tanakh, containing the writings of the prophets and history covering roughly 700 years after Moses.
  11. Ketuvim
    (Writings) 13 books includes wisdom, literature, prophecy, stories
  12. Talmud
    • "instruction", Rabbinic writings on law and tradition
    • Another important Jewish text besides the Tanakh is the Talmud, a collection of rabbinical writings that interpret, explain and apply the Torah scriptures.
    • The Oral Torah, made up of the Mishnah and the Gemara.
  13. Midrash
    • "study", commentaries on the Tanakh
    • Midrash contains both halakhic (legal) and aggadic (explanatory) matter, but it is best known for the latter.
    • Stories, sermons, parables, and other material explaining the Talmud
  14. Kabbalah
    • "Tradition", Jewish mysticism
    • School that tought concern with mystical aspect of Rabbinic Judaism
  15. Sadducees
    • members of pristly families; in opposition to the pharisees
    • one of the 3 main Jewish political and religious movement
  16. Pharisees
    • spiritual fathers of modern Judaism
    • Emphasized obervation of Biblical rules, Rabbinic Judaism
  17. Zealots
    • political movement in second temple Juddism
    • Anti-Roman, Nationalist Jews
    • Members of a historical Jewish movement characterized by armed rebellion against Roman rulers.
  18. Essenes
    • Jewish religion group
    • Emphasized monasticism; a political
  19. Prophet
    one who speak on behalf of God
  20. Synagogue
    • "assembly" place of worship
    • 10 Jewish males and copy of Torah
  21. Rabbi
    • my master
    • (Hebrew, "teacher"). Jewish spiritual leader.
  22. Theodore Herzel
    Jewish reporter who convered to Dreyfus case; encouraged Jews to seek their own homeland
  23. Causes of Holocaust
    • German ethnocentricism and racism
    • German troubles following WW1 (blamed Jews)
    • Nazi madness (distruction of Jew)
    • use of modern tech to kill
  24. Orthodox (Sectarian Divisions)
    • Largest group of Judaism. Strives to Perserve traditional Jewish culture and religion and resist the secularizing elements of modernity. Men and woman separate from worship
    • Orthodox Jews believe the entire Torah - including "Written," the Pentateuch, and "Oral," the Talmud) was given to Moses by God at Sinai and remains authoritative for modern life in its entirety.
  25. Reform (Sectarian Divisions)
    Reform Judaism popular in US and Europe. Emphasized the universality of tradition Jewish values, interfaith dialogue and social activism. Woman can be Rabii
  26. Conservative (Sectarian Divisions)
    • (Reconstructionist Judaism) concern with scientific study of the Bible and rabbinical material
    • moderate sect that seeks to avoid the extremes of Orthodox and Reform Judaism. Conservative Jews wish to conserve the traditional elements of Judaism while also allowing for reasonable modernization and rabbinical development.
  27. Shabbat
    • Most people know the Sabbath as the day of the week on which Jews are forbidden to work. However, from the Jewish perspective the Sabbath is not about rules but about joyful celebration and rest. As one Jewish author puts it, "it is a precious gift from G-d, a day of great joy eagerly awaited throughout the week, a time when we can set aside all of our weekday concerns and devote ourselves to higher pursuits."
    • In the Torah, the purpose of Sabbath observance is to remind the Hebrew people of two very important events in history: the creation of the world (Ex. 20:11) and the deliverance from slavery in Egypt (Deut. 5:15). Both highlight the central Jewish religious belief: that there is one, powerful creator God who cares for his people. Jews also believe that God commanded the Sabbath to ensure that his people stopped every once in awhile to be a human being instead of a "human doing."
  28. Rosh Hashanah
    Rosh Hashanah means "head of the year" and is commonly known as the Jewish New Year. It is the day on which the year number changes, but unlike secular New Year celebrations, Rosh Hashanah is a solemn and holy time. It occurs on the first and second days of Tishri, which falls in September or October.
  29. Yom Kippur
    • Yom Kippur, celebrated on the 10th day of Tishri,
    • is the most important and solemn of Jewish holidays. Yom Kippur is the occasion
    • on which otherwise nonobservant Jews are most likely to attend synagogue,
    • refrain from work, or fast.
  30. Hanukkah
    • Hanukkah (also spelled Chanukah)
    • is probably the Jewish holiday with which non-Jews are most familiar, due to
    • its proximity to Christmas. It is
    • not, however, the "Jewish Christmas" - it historically predates
    • Christmas and is a very different celebration.

    • Also spelled Chanukah. An eight-day holiday beginning on 25 Kislev
    • (mid-December) that commemorates the revolt of the Maccabees in 164 BCE
    • and the miraculous oil that burned for eight days.
  31. Pesach (Passover)
    Pesach or Passover is a spring holiday commemorating the Exodus, the liberation of the Hebrews from slavery in Egypt in the time of Moses (circa 13th century BCE). Many of its observances are instituted in chapters 12 to 15 of the book of Exodus. Passover begins on the 15th day of the month of Nisan and ends on the 22nd (21st in Israel and among Reform Jews). It is a joyful time of family togetherness, but also one of prescribed ritual and strict rules.
  32. Two important contributions Moses offered to the development of Judaism
    • Revieved the 10 Commendments from God to offer in poerts of the development of Judaism
    • Found God, known as YHWH - asked to free slaves (Exedus)
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