1. CN V
    Trigeminal- jaw, velum, middle ear
  2. CN VII
    Facial- Face, front 2/3 tongue, ear
  3. CN VIII
    Acoustic- Ballance/equilibrium
  4. CN X
    Vagus- Cricothyroid, intrinsic larynx, (pitch)
  5. CN IX
    Glossopharyngeal- pharyngeal constrictor, post 1/3 tongue, velum, pharynx
  6. CN XI
    Spinal- Raises velum
  7. CN XII
    Hypoglossal- All tongue muscles, protrusion. Ossiculation
  8. Piaget 0-2 yr
    Sensorimotor- motor reflex=actions

    Siren= cry
  9. Piaget 2-7
    Preoperational- symbols represent objects, egocentrism

    Siren= mommy whats goin on
  10. Piaget 7-adolescence
    Concrete- think abstractly, make judgments, learn from previous experiences

    Siren= Teacher said to stop
  11. Piaget Adolescence-adult
    Formal operations- Doesnt need to be concrete to make judgments

    Siren= get out of the way, the ambulence needs to get past
  12. Assimilation
    Learn new info and put in category already known
  13. Accomidation
    New folder for information received that doesn't fit previous folder
  14. Cricopharyngus
    UES- relaxes to allow food in esophagus
  15. oropharynx
    Back wall near base of tongue, receptors for swallowing reflex trigger
  16. Medula oblongota/lower pons
    Recieve message from oropharynx to trigger swallow reflex
  17. soft palate/uvula in swallow
    closes off nasopharynx
  18. Epoglottis
    Seals off larynx and protects airway
  19. Brown Stage 1
    1-2 yr. MLU 1.75

    Simple 2wd combinations

    Semantic relations

    Operations of referance
  20. Brown II
    2-3 yrs. MLU 2.25

    • Pres prog
    • In
    • On
    • Plural S
  21. Brown III
    3-4 yr, MLU 2.75

    • Irr past tense
    • Posessive S
    • uncontractable Copula
  22. Brown IV
    3.5-4 MLU- 3.75

    • Articles
    • Reg past tense
    • Third person regular pres tense
  23. Brown V
    4.5-5 MLU-4.0

    • 3rd person irregular
    • Uncontractable auxilary
    • Contractable copula
    • Contractable auxilary
  24. Cohort theory
    The cohort theory of speech perception is a two-stage variant of the logogen theory; that is, word recognition, rather than phoneme recognition, is central.

    Lexicon, maping, segmentation

    Google search to find WORD
  25. Motor Theory Model
    understand words by knowing placement of motor articulators

    Gestures, coarticulating, trading relations
  26. Focused
    • F=Face
    • •O=Orient
    • •C=Continue
    • •U=Unstick
    • •S=Structure
    • •E=Exchange
    • •D=Direct
  27. Angular Gyrus
    anomia, i.e. severe word finding and confrontive naming difficulty

    Unable to send visual info from left to right= Alexia

    Although comprehension would be intact and a patient would know what she wanted to say, she would be unable to say it. Nor would she be able to repeat simple statements, read out loud, or write to dictation. This is because Broca's area is diconnected from the posterior language zones.

    Broca's disconnected from Wernikie's
  28. Behaviorism Theory
    In behaviorism, operant conditioning is fundamental to learning. It follows, thus, that caregivers are necessary to reinforce the child’s phonological development.
  29. Restorative Approach
    repetitive tasks exercise neural circuits, and therefore contribute to the growth of damaged neurons.
  30. Extinction
    Conditioned stimulus is lost when the unconditioned stimulus is removed
  31. Acoustic Reflex
    the stapedius and tensor tympani muscles of the ossicles contract. The stapedius pulls the stapes (stirrup) of the middle ear away from the oval window of the cochlea and the tensor tympani muscle pulls the malleus (hammer) away from ear drum. The reflex decreases the transmission of vibrational energy to the cochlea, where it is converted into electrical impulses to be processed by the brain
  32. Consonant harmony
    Use same sound for consonants
  33. Glossometry
    Measures distance between tongue and roof of mouth
  34. Electroglottogaphy EGG
    Records info re: closure of vocal folds
  35. Speech tachometry

  36. Electromyography EMG
    Measures electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles and nerves
  37. Palatometry
    Artic therapy with electrodes and visual feedback for placement
  38. Multiple Phonemic Approach
    train the client to attend to many segments at a time, both the correctly, and the incorrectly, articulated sounds, with the eventual goal of correct articulation of all speech sounds in spontaneous speech.
  39. Wedge Approach
    Not all sounds need tx.

    Training for one sound per area, the rest will generalize
  40. Sensory motor approach
    Sounds trained where not in error and introduced to a wider variety of contexts

    • Does not begin with isolation
    • Does not require perceptual training
  41. Stimuability enhancement
    Production of consonants in isolation or CV to increase number of stimulable sounds.Stimulability
  42. paired stimuli
    Use key words paired with words in which the target sound is produced incorrectly at the word, sentence, and conversation levels.Phonetic Context
  43. Shimmer and Jitter
    A ratio comparing normal speakers and people who stutter
  44. Suck Swallow
    closing and sucking in mouth while pumping jaw and tongue up and down—improves the pharyngeal swallow reflex
  45. Effortfull Swallow
    This increases the tongue driving force by causing exaggerated retraction of the tongue. This helps to get food past the valleculae.The patient is directed to squeeze hard with his throat and neck muscles during the swallow.
  46. Acquired Apraxia of Speech
    typically show signs of oral nonverbal apraxia, such as the inability to perform skilled facial movements such as puckering the lips or clicking the tongue against the palette

    Do not show difficulties with respiration/phonation
  47. Dysarthria
    • People with dysarthria have trouble making certain sounds or words.
    • Their speech is poorly pronounced (such as slurring), and the rhythm or speed of their speech changes. Other symptoms include:

    Sounding as though they are mumbling

    Speaking softly or in a whisper

    • Speaking in a nasal or stuffy, hoarse, strained, or breathy voice
    • A person with dysarthria may also drool and have problems chewing or swallowing. It may be difficult to move the lips, tongue, or jaw.
  48. phonotactics
    Rules for arrangments of sounds in a language
  49. Allophonic variations
    Different ways of saying a word without changing the meaning
  50. Epenthesis
    The addition of sounds in a word

    • Warmth= Warmpth
    • Hamster= "Hampster"
  51. Metathesis
    Mixing up of sounds within words
  52. pseudobulbar palsey
    bilateral cortical damage involving the motor projections of cranial nerves IX, X, XI, and XII; in other words, spastic dysarthria.
  53. ankyloglossia
    Advanced lingual frenulum restricting range of motion

    Difficulty with Alvealors and interdentals
  54. Productive morphemes
    Sincronize and expand vocabulary
  55. Derivational morphemes
    Change the meaning of the word class

    Final - Finalize
  56. hyperkinetic dysarthria
    The tics and spasmodic movements of Tourette’s syndrome frequently lead to speech errors such as consonant misarticulations and variable speech rate characteristic of hyperkinetic dysarthria.
  57. hypokinetic Dysarthria
    The only dysarthria characterized by fast rushes of speech is hypokinetic dysarthria, the statistcially most prevalent cause of which is Parkinson’s disease.
  58. veli palatini
    closes off nasopharynx.

    Necessarry for IOBP
  59. Palatoglossus
    Lowers velum

    Assists with production of nasals
    Retracts and elivates tongue

    Initiation of swallow
  61. Levator veli palatini
    closes nasopharynx to prevent nasal regurgitation
  62. Tensor veli palatini
    tenses velum before elivation
  63. Harmonics to noise ratio
    used to dx vocal fold nodules or impeedance with vocal folds
  64. Dx statement should include
    diagnosis and name of the disorder, the physiological causes, and the resulting functional deficits
  65. Diffuse axonal injury
    Shearing of axons as a result of brain twisting in acceleration-deceleration brain injury
  66. Alveolar fricative
    S, Z
  67. Auditory visual approach
    mimic the sound the clinician makes by means of watching and listening and attempting to do the same
  68. Vagus Nerve Results
    The deviation of the uvula, absence of gag reflex, and swallowing deficiencies indicate vagus nerve damage. Hypernasality and chronic hoarseness ensue as branches of the vagus nerve provide the motor innervation of the primary constrictors and lifters of the velum, as well as to the cricothyroid muscle, motor deficits in this latter causing a loss of high vocal range
  69. Palilalia
    Repitition of word over and over again. Common with Hypokenetic dysarthria and PD
  70. idiolalia
    sounds substituted so that only parents are able to comprehend wds
  71. Alalia
    Complete inabality to speak
  72. Palilalia
    Repitition or echoing of own words

    PD, turretts, Autism
  73. Embololalia
    Meaningless sounds or words in sent or speech
  74. Stutterers common charactaristics
    The major risk factor for developing stuttering is heredity. The majority of people who develop stuttering and continue to stutter tend to have relatives who also stutter. In addition, males tend to persist in stuttering more than females, and stuttering tends to develop in childhood between the ages of 2 and 5. Socioeconomic level and region of the world seem not to be associated risk factors
  75. Frequencies amplified by outer ear
    The outer ear amplifies sounds between approximately 1500 to 6000 Hz
  76. Recurrent laryngeal nerve
    all the muscles of the larynx with the exception of the cricothryoids

    cut= Huskyness and breathyness
  77. Body function component
    Psychological and physiological
  78. Body structure component
    Anatomical parts of body
  79. Slope index
    Tool measures Hz of speech

    Found below 2.5 Hz unintellegable
  80. Jitter
    variability of frequency of vocal fold vibration
  81. dysarthria tx
    reduce the rate of their speech and produce syllables one by one. Speaking this way will disrupt intonation patterns and may make the person sound "robot-like." However, it is the best way to maximize the clarity of dysarthric speech
  82. Prevalence
    number of people in a particular region with dx
  83. Incidence
    number of new dx in a period of time
  84. integral stimulation approach
    imitation, and emphasized both visual and auditory models

    client imitates multisensory models of stimulable sounds

    very traditional
  85. Ataxic Dysarthria
    respiration, phonation, resonance and articulation, but its characteristics are most pronounced in articulation and prosody.

    damage to cerebellum
  86. two years of age, approximately what percentage of a child’s speech should be judged by nonfamiliars to be intelligible?
  87. inteligibility calc
    • Child aged 1;0 = 1/4 or 25% intelligible to strangers
    • Child aged 2;0 = 2/4 or 50% intelligible to strangers
    • Child aged 3;0 = 3/4 or 75% intelligible to strangers
    • Child aged 4;0 = 4/4 or 100% intelligible to strangers
  88. palatoglossus
    production of back vowels and velar consonants

    raise back tongue
  89. Code switching
    ability to change dialect or language based on social context
Card Set
speech praxis exam