Anatomy Terms

  1. Sagittal Plane
    A plane that divides the body into left and right portions
  2. Sagittal Axis
    A horizontal line extending from front to back, about which movements of abduction and adduction take place
  3. Medial
    Toward the mid-line
  4. Rostal
    Anterior part of the brain
  5. Ventral
    A synonym for anterior usually applied to the torso
  6. Caudal
    Downward, away from the head (toward the tail)
  7. Cephalic
    Toward the head
  8. Bilateral
    Pertaining to two sides
  9. Lateral
    Away from the mid-line
  10. Unilateral
    Pertaining to one side
  11. Elevation
    Shoulders Up
  12. Depression
    Shoulders Down
  13. Retraction
    Jaw Back
  14. Protrusion
    Jaw Forward
  15. Dorsiflexion
    Toes Up
  16. Plantar Flexion
    Toes Down
  17. Inverted
    Turned Inward (foot @ ankle joint)
  18. Evert
    Turned Outward (foot @ ankle joint)
  19. Dorsal
    Toward the Rear; relating to the back; Posterior

    Also back of the hand and top of the foot
  20. Antecubital
    Anterior side of the elbow
  21. Proximal
    Nearer to the center or mid-line of the body, or to the thorax
  22. Distal
    Farther from the center or median line or from the thorax
  23. Plantar
    Sole side of the foot
  24. Cranial
    Upward, toward the head
  25. Superior
    Toward the head
  26. Inferior
    Away from the head
  27. Anterior
    Toward the front or Ventral surface
  28. Posterior
    Towards the back or Dorsal surface
  29. Adduction
    Toward the mid-line
  30. Abduction
    Away from the mid-line
  31. Flexion
    Bending or Angulation making angle of joint smaller
  32. Extention
    Making angle of joint longer
  33. Prone
    Forearm and hand turned palm side down; body lying face down
  34. Supine
    Forearm and hand turned palm side up; body lying face up
  35. Coronal
    A vertical plane perpendicular to the sagittal plane dividing the body into anterior and posterior portions, also called the frontal plane
  36. Anatomical Position
    Erect posture with face forward, arms @ sides, forearms supinated, fingers and thumbs in extention

    "Thumbs Up"
  37. Lordosis
    An abnormality increased concavity in the curvature of the lumbar spine as viewed from the side
  38. Kyphosis
    A condition characterized by an abnormality; increased convexity in the curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side
  39. Prime Mover
    A muscle that carries out an action
  40. Synergist
    A muscle that supports the prime mover
  41. Antagonist
    A muscle that performs the opposite action of the prime mover and synergist muscles

    A muscle that works in opposition to another muscle; opponent
  42. Coronal Axis
    A horizontal line extending from side to side, around which the movements of flexion and extension take place
  43. At what vertebral level does the thyroid cartilage lie?
  44. Where is the apex of the lung located?
    above the 1st rib
  45. Where does the brachiocephalic veins unite to for the SVC?
    At the level of the inferior border of the 1st right costal cartilage
  46. Where does the superior vena cava terminate inferiorly?
    At the level of the 3rd right costal cartilage
  47. Where are the kidneys located?
  48. At what vertebral level does the illiac crest lie?
  49. Where does the superior vena cava enter the right atrium?
    opposite the 3rd right costal cartilage
  50. Where is the cricoid cartilage located?
    • At the level of C6
    • Esophagus and Trachea start here as well
  51. Where does the brachiocephalic trunk (artery) branch off?
    only at the right
  52. Where is the sternal angle (Angle of Louis) located?
    • T4-T5
    • Rib 2
  53. Where does the abdominal aorta bifurcate?
    At the level of L4 into the common illiac arteries (inferior vena cava) which bifurcate at the level of L5
  54. Where is the start of the trachea?
    Where does id bifurcate?
    • Starts at the level of C6
    • Bifurcates at the level of sternal angle (2nd rib, T4, Tranthoracic Plane)
  55. The hepatic portal vein, a short, wide vein is formed by which two veins posterior to the neck and pancreas?
    • Superior Messenteric Vein
    • Splenic Vein
  56. Where is the Hyoid Bone located?
    At the level of C3
  57. The superficial temporal artery is the smaller terminal branch of which artery?
    External cartoid artery
  58. Where does the apex of the heart lie posteriorly?
    Left 5th intercostal space
  59. Where are the gluteal dimples located?
    just superior to PSIS
  60. Where is the hepatic portal vein located?
    • Close to the level of L1 vertebra
    • Anterior to inferior vena cava and posterior to neck of pancreas where superior messenteric and splenic vein meet
  61. Where are the renal arteries located?
    At the level of L1-L2 IVD
  62. What are the 4 lines (planes) that divide the 9 regions of the torso?
    What are the location of these lines?
    • 2 midclavicular lines, midpoint of clavicle and midpoint of inguinal ligament
    • Transpyloric Plane, lies on L1 vertebrae level or 9th costal cartilage
    • Intertubercular plane, L5 vertebral level
  63. Name the 9 regions of the torso divide by the 4 line (planes)
    • Hypochondriac Epigastric Hypochondriac
    • Flank Umbilical Flank
    • Inguinal Hypogastric Inguinal
  64. Level of the PSIS
    2nd sacral foramen
  65. Indentify all cranial nerves, Motor? Sensory? Both?
    • 1. Olfactory (S - nose)
    • 2. Optic (S - eye)
    • 3. Oculomotor (M - eye)
    • 4. Trochlear (M - eye)
    • 5. Trigeminal (B - face)
    • 6. Aducens (M - eye)
    • 7. Facial (B - face)
    • 8. Autidor / Vestibular (S - ear)
    • 9. Glossopharyngeal (B - tongue)
    • 10. Vagus (B - organs)
    • 11. Accesory Nerve (Spinal) (M - neck / SCM)
    • 12. Hypoglossal (M - tongue)
  66. What are the only arteries in the whole body deficient in oxygen?
    Pulmonary arteries
  67. What are the only veins in the whole body with rich oxygenated blood?
    Pulmonary veins
  68. External carotid branches to where?
    • Superficial arteries of the face
    • Superficial temporal arteries
  69. Where is teh sacral plexus (nerves) located?
    L4-Coccyx 1 nerve
  70. Where is the lumbar plexus (nerves) located?
    T12-L4 nerve
  71. Where is the cervical plexus (nerves) located?
    anterior rami of C1-C4 nerves
  72. Where the sound of the mitral valve closure is loudest
    Apex Beat
  73. What provides innervation for most of the upper limbs?
    • brachial plexus (C5-T1 nerves)
    • passes between 1st rib, clavicle and superior border of scapula to enter axilla
  74. What artery supplies the psoas major and quadratus lumborum muscles?
    Illiolumbar artery
  75. The vertebral artery runs through foramen transversarium from which vertebrae?
  76. Structures passing from or to the thorax to or from the abdomen pass through openings that traverse the diaphragm
    • esophagus
    • inferior vena cava
    • aorta
  77. The 3rd part of the subclavian artery passes through where, superiorly?
    • Greater supraclavicular fossa
    • Omoclavicular triangle
  78. Where is the tricuspid orifce located?
    • 4th and 5th intercostal space
    • Between right atrium and right ventricle
  79. Where is the mitral valve located?
    Between left artrium and left ventricle at the level of the 4th intercostal space
  80. What vein leaves the anterior cervical region by passing deep to SCM and inferiorly between the SCM's two heads?
    Internal Jugular Vein
  81. Border os the Superior Thoracic Apeture (throacic inlet)
    • 1. Posteriorly, T1 vertebra
    • 2. Laterally, 1st pair of ribs and costal cartilages
    • 3. Anteriorly, superior border of the manubrium
  82. Borders of the inferior throacic apeture (thoracic outlet)
    • 1. Posteriorly, T12 vertebra
    • 2. Posteriolaterally, 11th and 12th ribs (floating)
    • 3. Anteriolaterally, ribvs 7-10 (joined ribs)
    • 4. Anteriorly, xiphisternal joint, T9 (xiphoid / sternum)
  83. Internal carotid goes where?
    Brain, forming anterior and medial cerebral artery
  84. The phrenic nerve (C3-C5 nerves) are the sole motor supply to what?
  85. What is the order of th major structures in the superior mediastinum from anterior to posterior?
    • 1. Thymus
    • 2. Veins
    • 3. Arteries
    • 4. Airways
    • 5. Alimentary tract (digestive tract)
    • 6. Lymphatic trunks
  86. Where is the superior mediastinum located?
    Superior to transverse thoracic plane, pass through the sternal angle (at T4 and T5)
Card Set
Anatomy Terms
Anatomy Terms