Patho Quiz 1

  1. Idiopathic
    Cause is unknown
  2. Iatrogenic
    • Cause results from unintended or unwanted medical treatment
    • - Ex) Hysterectomy: Mistake Dr. Ligates ureter
  3. Pathogenesis
    Development or evolution of disease from initial stimulus to ultimate expression of manifestation of disease
  4. Symptoms
    Subjective feeling of abnormality in the body
  5. Signs
    Objective or observed manifestation of disease
  6. Sequela
    Subsequent pathologic condition resulting from an acute illness
  7. Alarm state of GAS
    Also called fight-or-flight because it provides a surge of energy and physical alterations to either run from or confront danger. To mobilize fight-or-flight, body releases CRH, ACTH, Glucocorticoids,
  8. Glucocorticoids
    Regulate metabolism of glucose, synthesis in the adrenal cortex
  9. Catecholamines
    Consists of Norepinephrine and Epinephrine that are secreted through Simpatico-Adrenal system response and mediates the fight-or-flight response
  10. Adrenocortical Steroids
    Are Cortisol and aldosterone that play an important role to maintain homeostasis. They MAY synergies or antagonize effect of catecholamine.
  11. Medulla Oblongata
    A part of the brain system that is responsible for vital functions, such as respiration and blood circulation
  12. Mitosis
    Leads to two daughter cells with the same DNA and Chromosome contect as the mother cell. Most cells undergo Mitosis
  13. Meiosis
    Leads to four gametocytes, each contains one-half the number of chromosomes of the original cell. Meiosis occurs only in reproductive cells.
  14. Atrophy
    Is a reduction in the size of a cell or organ that may occur when cell undergoes reduced workload or disuse, insufficient blood flow, malnutrition, or reduced hormonal and nerve stimulation
  15. Hypertrophy
    Increase in cell size or organ due to increase in workload or hormonal stimulation
  16. Pathologic Hypertrophy
    Is due to disease, for example, cardiac muscle hypertrophy is due to cardiac muscle pumping against increase resistance in patient with hypertension
  17. Hyperplasia
    • Increase the number of normal cells
    • - Increase function Capacity
  18. Metaplasia from Glandular to Squamous Epithelium
    - Example of Mainstem bronchus epithelum develops squamous metplasia in response to irritants in cigarette smoke
  19. Benign prostatic hyperplasia due to an increase in
  20. Metaplasia
    Replacement of one fully differentiated cell type by another.

    • Dysplasia
    • Disordered cell growth
  21. Porto-Oncogene
    When mutated they cause uncontrolled cell death
  22. HPV types 6 and 11 are associated with
    genital warts
  23. Proto-Oncogene
    When mutated they cause uncontrolled cell death
  24. Helper T cell
    stimulate B-Cells to mature into plasm cells. Plasma cells synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin
  25. Suppressor T Cells
    Reduce the humoral response
  26. IGG
    It appears in all body fluids and is the major antibody against chronic bacterial and viral infection crosses the placenta
  27. IGM
    Is the first immunoglobulin produced during an immune response usually present in the vascular system
  28. IGA
    Prevents attachment of bacteria and viruses to mucous membranes and it is found in body secretions
  29. IGD
    Unclear function and it is found on the surface of C-cells and in the serum
  30. IGE
    binds to mast cells and basophilic, mediating immediate hypersensitivity reactions or allergic reactions. IGE stimulates the release of mast cell granules which contain histamine and heparin
  31. Complement System
    Activated by IGG or IGM in the classic pathway and activated by molecules on the surface of microbes (especially endotoxin) in the alternative pathway
  32. HIV is the cause of
  33. Both HIV-1 and HIV-2 cause
    AIDS, but HIV-1 is found worldwide, whereas HIV-2 is found primarily in West Africa
  34. HIV preferentially infects and kills
    Helper T Lymphocytes (CD4)
  35. HIV B infects
    mononuclear cells and appears to be passed readily during anal sex
  36. HIV E
    infects female genital tract cells and appears to be passed readily during vaginal sex
  37. Chemokine receptors, such as CXCR4 and CCR5 proteins, are required
    for the entry of HIV into CD4-positive cells
  38. Anitgens of HIV - Group-Specific Antigen
    p24 is located in the core and is not known to vary
  39. Mutations in the gene encoding CCR5 endow the individual with protection from
    infection with HIV
  40. Although small amounts of HIV virus have been found in other fluids like saliva and tears
    there is no evidence that they play a role in infection
  41. Blood Banks test for the presence of p24 antigen in an effort
    to detect blood that contains HIV
  42. The Acute stage of HIV infection
    usually begins 2-4 weeks after infection, a mononucleosis-like picture of fever, lethargy, sore throat, and generalized lymphadenopathy occurs.
  43. (HIV) The most frequent manifestations are
    persistent fevers, fatigue, weight loss, and lymphadenopathy.
  44. The last stage of HIV infection is AIDS,
    manifested by a decline in the number of CD4 cells to below 400/uL and an increase in the frequency and severity of opportunistic infections
  45. The presumptive diagnosis of HIV infection is made by the detection of antibodies by
  46. Western Blot analysis
    is used to make the definitive diagnosis of HIV
  47. Lab test for SLE
    Antibodies to double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA)- very specific, poor prognosis
  48. Drug-Induced Lupus caused by
    Procainamide, quinidine, hydrazine, isoniazied, methyldopa, and chlorpromazine
  49. RA patients have positive
    rheumatoid factors (anti-IgG antibody)
  50. Classic Presentation of RA
    morning stiffness lasting more than 30 minutes and improving with use, symmetric joint involvement, systemic symptoms (fever, fatigue, pleuritis, pericarditis)
  51. Hypercalcemia
    Serum calcium level is more than 10.2 mg/dL
  52. Cause of hypercalcemia in the in-patient and out-patient setting is
    malignancy; primary hyperparathyroidism
  53. The Main immune respone to HIV infection
    • Consists of cytotoxic CD8-Positive lymphocytes
    • - These cells respond to the intial infection and control it for many years
  54. Hypernatremia(Serum)
    Serum Sodium Level is more than 145 mEq/L
  55. Hyponatermia(Serum)
    Serum Sodium Level is less than 136 mEq/L
  56. Hypekalemia(Serum)
    Serum Potassium is more than 5.0 mEq/L
  57. Hyperkalemia
    • -Peaked T Waves
    • -Widening of the QRS complex
    • -Flattening of the P wave
  58. Hypokalemia(Serum)
    Serum potassium is less than 3.6 mEq/L
  59. Two Manifestations of AIDS
    Pneumocystis Pneumonia and Kaposi's Sarcoma
  60. Hypocalcemia
    • serum calcium level is less than 8.5 mg/dL causes: hypoparathyroidism, pseudoparathyroidism
    • Normal serum pH: 7.36-7.44
    • Normal serum [HCO3-]: 24 mEq/L
    • Normal serum PCO2: 40 mm Hg
  61. Respiratory Acidosis
    pH is less than 7.35 and PCO2 is greater than 45 mm Hg
  62. Respiratory Alkalosis
  63. Hyperventilation
    pH is greater than 7.45 and PCO2 is less than 35 mmHg
  64. Metabolic Acidosis
    pH is less than 7.35 and HCO3 is less than 22 mEq/L; hyperkalemia
  65. Metabolic Alkalosis
    slow, shallow respirations
Card Set
Patho Quiz 1