community nursing- final review

  1. a learned set of ideals, values, and assumptions, about life that are widely shared among a group of people
  2. physical markers such as skin color, eye color, hair color, and texture
  3. social markers such as dress, customs, dietary and lifestyle practices
  4. ascribing certain beliefs and behaviors about a group to an individual without giving adequate attention to individual differences
  5. emotional manifestation of deeply held beliefs about other groups; involves negatice attitudes
  6. a form of prejudice that refers to beliefs that persons who are born into particular groups are inferior in intelligence, morals, beauty and self-worth
  7. an action motivated by a prejudice
  8. belief that one's own group or culture is superior to others
  9. the process of imposing one's cultural values on others
    cultural imposition
  10. developing specific cultural knowledge and interpersonal skills, in addition to being culturally sensitive
    cultural competence
  11. What does a nurse need to be culturally competent?
    • helps nurses provide care to a diverse group of people
    • is aware and knowledgable about specific values, beliefs, and practices of cultural groups
    • possesses interpersonal skills (i.e. touch, space, eye contact) that promote cultural care
  12. supporting a client's cultural values and traditions
    cultural preservation
  13. incorporating safe cultural health beliefs and practices into the client's place of care
    cultural accommodation
  14. assisting the client in changing harmful cultural health practices (within the context of the client's values and beliefs)
    cultural repatterning
  15. bridging the gap between the health care culture and the client's culture
    cultural brokering
  16. What are the 4 dimensions of cultural competence that murses may use in delivering culturally competent care?
    • cultural preservation
    • cultual accommodation
    • cultural repatterning
    • cultural brokering
  17. What is the percentage of Americans that marry? Average age of first marriage? Divorce rate? Remarriage rate?
    • % marry: 90%
    • age of 1st marriage: women (rose from 24.5 to 26.9)
    • divorce rate: 60%
    • 75% of divorced people remarry
    • 75% of women who divorce in their 40s never remarry
    • rate of divorce is higher if the coupld marries before the age of 24
  18. traditional/nuclear family
    a husband, wife and their children
  19. contemporary family units
    • single parent
    • intergenerational
    • extended without paent present headed by a grandparent
    • same-sex
    • co-habitating or domestic partnership
    • institution (foster care, group homes, residential or treatment centers)
  20. Why is it important for nurses to understand concepts related to families?
    • famiy influences an individuals concept of health/illness, sense of self-esteem, and personal competence
    • association b/t the health of the family and the individual
    • disease/illness in one member affects the whole family unit
    • health care decisions are made within the family
    • families are the key members of the healthcare team
  21. What are the 3 theories used as the basis for the Friedman Family Assessment Model?
    • Structural-Functional Theory
    • Systems Theory
    • Duvall's Developmental Stage Theory
  22. this theory examins the family unit as an organized structure and how the family unit meets the needs of individual members and society as a whole
    Structural-Functional Theory
  23. General assumptions of the Structural-Functional Theory
    • a family is a social system with functional requirements
    • a family is a small group possessing certain generic features common to all small groups
    • the family as a social system accomplishes functions that serve both the individual and society
    • individuals act in accordance with a set of internalized norms and values that are learned primarily in the family through socialization
  24. Role Structure
    • how the family is organized in terms of the roles of individual members
    • roles may be formal or informal
  25. Value Systems
    reers to what is important to the family unit
  26. Communication Processes
    the processes used by members of the family to exchange feelings, desires, needs, information, and opinions
  27. Power Structure
    the family hierarchy that determines who has the actual or potential ability to change, influence or control the behavior of individual family members
  28. Affective Function
    referred to as meeting the psychological needs of family members
  29. Socialization
    refers to the way in which families prepare children to become productive members of society as adults
  30. Reproductive Function
    necessary for the maintenance of family continuity over generations as well as for societal survival
  31. Economic Function
    the provision of sufficient economic resources and their effectuve allocation
  32. Health Care Function
    the provision of physical necessities (food, shelter, clothing, health care, etc.)
  33. emphasizes how the family unit relates to, and interrelates with, the community and society as a whole
    Systems Theory
  34. General Concepts of Systems Theory
    • families are holistic and non-summative (the whole family is greater than the sum of its parts)
    • families are living social systems in constant interaciton with their environments
    • families have boundaries which may be open or closed
    • families are either open system, closed systems, or random systems
  35. Open systems
    • interactive with the environment
    • bi-directional energy exchange
    • perceive change as normal
  36. Closed System
    • limited interaction with the environment
    • limited energy exchange
    • threatened by and resistant to change
  37. Random System
    • high degree of individuality among members
    • boundaries are open
    • very high energy exchange
    • chaotic and prone to dissolution
    • "anything goes" philosopy
  38. this theory maintains that family units progress through 8 specific stages over the course of time, and that specific developmental tasks must be accomplished in each stage
    Duvall's Family Developmental Stage Theory
  39. What is a limitation to Duvall's Family Developmental Stage Theory? Guidepost for the theory?
    • limitation: variations in current family forms, model assumes the family is headed by a heterosexual married couple
    • Guidepost: the age and school placement of the oldest child
  40. Basic assumptions of Duvall's FAmily Developmental Stage Theory
    • families develop and change over time in predictable ways
    • as people mature and interact, they initiate actions and reactions to environmental demands
    • families perform time-specific tasks that are set by themselves, culture and society
    • there is a tendency for families to have a discernible beginning and end
  41. Stage 1
    • Married (beginning) couple
    • couple without children
    • developmental task: est. a mutually satisfying relationship, relating harmoniously to in-laws, family planning
  42. Stage 2
    • childbearing
    • birth of the firstborn until the oldest child is 30 months old
    • DT: est. a stable family, adapting to parental role and new parental responsibilities, est. effective communication patterns
  43. Stage 3
    • preschool age
    • oldest child is 30 months to 5-6 years old (when child starts school)
    • DT: providing a safe environment, adapting to a role change, maintaining mutually satisfying marital relationship, integrating new family members and still meeting needs of older children, parent/child seperation
  44. Stage 4
    • school age
    • oldest child is 6-13 years old
    • DT: socializing children, promoting school achievement, maintaining a satisfying marital relationship
  45. Stage 5
    • teenage
    • oldest child is 13-20 years old
    • DT: maintaining open communicaiton, maintaining family ethical and moral standards, maintaining sat. marital relationship
  46. Stage 6
    • launching center
    • firstborn through youngest child leave home
    • DT: children become independent while maintaining parental ties, accepting new members (marriage), parents must adjust to independence
  47. Stage 7
    • middle years
    • empty nest to retirement
    • DT: maintaining a sense of well-being physiologically and psychologically by living a healthy life, sustaining sat. and meaningful relationships with aging prarents and children, strengthening marital relationship
  48. Stage 8
    • aging family
    • retirment to death of both spouses
    • DT: maintaining sat. living arrangements, adjusting to reduced income, maintaining marital rel., adjusting to loss of spouse, maintaining intergenerational ties
  49. What are the 6 major assessment areas of Friedman's Family Assessment Model?
    • 1. identifying data
    • 2. developmental stage and history of family
    • 3. environmental data
    • 4. family structure (roles, values, communication patterns, power structures)
    • 5. family functions (affective, socialization, and health care functions)
    • 6. family stress and coping
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community nursing- final review