chapter 4

  1. buoyancy
    • is the tendency of an object to float in a fluid
    • it is controlled by differences in density between the object and the fluid, where density is given by the mass of a substance within a unit volume.
  2. subsidence
    this phenomenon
  3. convergence
    the merging of air masses that are moving inward toward a low pressure region is called convergence
  4. intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ)
    the converging air masses that meet at the tropics and rise make up the intertropical convergence zone
  5. divergence
    in this case refers to the movement of air outward from a region in the atmosphere
  6. hadley circulation
    this pattern of air movment, with convergence occurring in the tropics and divergence and subsidence some 30 away in one large convection cell, is called hadly circulation
  7. polar front zone
    the equator moving cold air meets the warm air moving poleward from the subtropics, producing a zone of steep temperature gradients called the polar front zone at approximately 60 N and S latitude
  8. coriolis effect
    is the apparent tendency for a fluid ( air or water ) moving across earth's surface to be deflected from its straigh -line path.
  9. monsoon
    is a seasonal reversal in the surface winds. in summer the large asian land mass, with its high elevationsin temperatures, low atmospheric pressures, and intense convection of air above the surface.
  10. latent heat of vaporization
    the energy needed to convert liquid water to water vapor
  11. latent heat of fusion
    the energy needed to convert ice to liquid water, equals 335 kj/ kg
  12. hydrologic cycle
    the reservoirs and the pattern of water storage and movement throughout the system comprise the global hydrologic cycle
  13. groundwater
    water that penetrates through soil and rock and collects below the surface
  14. partial pressures
    of the individual gases--that is, the pressure each gas would exert if it were the only gas present
  15. evaporation
    imagine a body of water. water molecules at the surface that have a little more energy than do their neighbors can overcome the attractive forces that hold the molecules together and thereby exscape as water vapor molecules into the air above
  16. condensation
    some of these water vapor molecules that subsequently come into contact with teh water surface would lose energy be caught by the liquid water molecules, and become liquid water again
  17. uplift
    thus most rainfall situations occur with some form of UPLIFT, or rising of air masses. uplift is a general term denoting any process by which air at a given level in the atmosphere is lifted to a higher altitude
  18. deserts
    and we can examine why they are located where they are
  19. Ekmans spiral
    the deeper below the surface in the northern hemispher and to the left in the souther hemisphere
  20. ekman transport
Card Set
chapter 4
oceans, earth, system