Euro Chapter 13

  1. benefices
    • offices that clerics held, but most seldom visited
    • Chapter 14
  2. communes
    sworn associations of free men seeking complete political and economic independence from local nobles
  3. popolo
    • People that want government places and equality due to heavy taxation
    • Ciompi Revolt
  4. Ciompi Revolt
    Revolt led by popolo
  5. Signori
    Despots or one-man rulers
  6. Oligarchies
    The rule of merchant aristocracies
  7. Sforza family
    Rules Milan
  8. Medici Family
  9. Girolamo Savonarola
    • Florentine
    • Predicts French invasion
    • Also attacks the Medici and Pope's actions
  10. King Charles VIII
    Leads France to attack split Italy in 1494
  11. Habsburg-Valois Wars (1522)
    Series of conflicts on Italian land between France and Germany
  12. Francesco Petrarch
    • New period from Gothic gloom
    • Founder of Humanism
  13. Boccaccio
    The Decameron
  14. Florence and Rome
    Artistic centers of the Renaissance
  15. Donatello
    Creates sculptures with balance and self-awareness
  16. Masaccio
    • Father of Modern Painting
    • Used great realism and themes including light and dark
  17. Baldassare Castiglione
    • The Courtier (1528)
    • Educated man should be well rounded
  18. Niccolo Machiavelli
    • The Prince (1513)
    • Gain, Maintain, Increase Power using fear and love
  19. Johann Gutenberg
    Printing Press (1455)
  20. Johann Fust
    Experimented with Gutenberg for movable type
  21. Peter Schoeffer
    Experiemented with Gutenbergy for movable type
  22. Laura Cereta
    • Woman who questioned the role of women
    • Freedom is gained through study
  23. Saint Maurice
    Black knight matyred in the 4th Century
  24. Jacques Lefevre d'Etaples
    • French priest
    • One of the first attempts to apply humanistic learning to religious problems
  25. Thomas More
    • Utopia (1516)
    • Describes ideal society
    • Society has flaws instead of human corruption
  26. Desiderius Erasmus
    Founded education as the means to reform and to follow Christ (not theologians)
  27. Francois Rabelais
    • French humanist
    • Wild, gross humor to satirize
    • Rightness of instinct, laughter is the essence of manhood, etc.
  28. King Charles VII
    • French
    • Reorganized the royal council, strengthened royal finances,, and reformed the justice system and army
  29. Louis XI
    • Charles VII's son
    • Spider king
    • Severe taxation
  30. Marriage of Louis XII and Anne of Brittany
    Adds Brittany to France
  31. Mutual agreement of Francis I and Pope Leo X
    Pope gets income of 1st years, Francis picks French bishops
  32. War of Roses
    Yorkists (White) vs. Lancastrians (Red)
  33. Edward IV
    Started domestic tranquility
  34. Star Chamber
    • English
    • Effective to prevent aristocratic interference
  35. Reconquista
    attempts of northern Christian Kingdoms to control the entire peninsula
  36. Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella
    Unified and Christianized Spain
  37. Innocent III
    Abortions and Infanticide causes him to open orphanages
  38. Hermandades
    • Brotherhoods revived by Ferdinand of Aragon
    • Controlled locals as police force and judicial tribunals with severe punishments
  39. Conversos
    Jews who converted due to riots and pogroms
Card Set
Euro Chapter 13