1. What is a seizure?
    State of hyperactivity in either a section of the brain or all of the brain
  2. Explain tonic clonic seizures.
    Periods of muscle rigidity (tonic stage) followed by spazmotic twitching (clonic stage) then flaccidity & a gradual return to consciousness (postictal stage)
  3. How do Na ion blockers work for seizure treatment?
    They inhibit the influx of Na into the cell decreasing the cells ability to depolarize & propagate seizures
  4. How do Ca ion blockers work for seizure treatment?
    They inhibit influx of Ca in Ca channels in the hypothalmus
  5. What are the 2 Na ion blockers used for seizure treatment?
    • Phentoin aka Dilantin
    • Carbamazapine aka Tegratol
  6. What is the Ca ion blocker used for seizure treatment?
    Valproic Acid
  7. How do Benzos mitigate seizures?
    They interact w/the GABA receptor-chloride ion channel complex. They hyperpolarize the membrane of the CNS neurons decreasing their response to stimuli
  8. What factors could be used to differentiate between a seizure & a syncopal episode?
    • Hx of seizures
    • Head inj
    • Alcohol/drug abuse
    • Pt Meds
    • Fever/H/A/stiff neck
  9. What are 4 points of seizure mgmt?
    • Safety of you & your pt
    • ABCs
    • Quiet Atmosphere
    • Meds
  10. How do we manage status epilepticus?
    • ABCs
    • RPC
    • 25g of D50 if hypoglycemic
    • 5-10mg diazepam IV/PR
    • Monitor Airway
  11. What are the 3 types of syncopal episodes?
    • Cardiovascular - Dysrhythmias/mechanical
    • Non cardiovascular
    • Idiopathic
  12. How do we manage a syncopal episode?
    • BSI/Scene safety
    • RPC
    • Position of Comfort or trendelenberg if no C-Spine issue
  13. What are the 7 levels of a tonic clonic seizure?
    • Aura
    • LOC
    • Tonic phase
    • Hypertonic phase
    • Clonic Phase
    • Post seizure
    • Postictal
  14. What are the 2 types of partial seizures?
    • Simple partial
    • Complex partial
  15. A simple partial seizure is described as:
    • One which effects only a small part of the brain & 1 part of the body
    • Ppl usually retain consciousness
    • Can progress to complex partial
  16. A complex partial seizure is described as:
    • Bilat cerebral hemisphere involvement
    • Causes AMS/LOC
    • Often starts as a simple partial
  17. What are the 2 classifications of strokes?
    • Ischemic
    • Hemorrhagic
  18. Describe an ischemic stroke:
    Blood supply to part of the brain is decreased causing dysfunction of brain tissue in that area
  19. What are the four reasons why Ischemic strokes occur?
    • Thrombosis
    • Embolism
    • Systemic Hypoperfusion
    • Venous Thrombosis
  20. Describe a hemorrhagic stroke:
    One caused by an accumulation of blood anywhere within the skull vault
  21. What are the S&S of a stroke?
    • Facial drooping
    • H/A
    • Aphasia/dysphasia
    • Hemiparesis
    • Paresthesis
    • Gait Disturbances
    • Incontinance
    • Confusion
    • Agitation
    • Dizziness
    • Vision Problems
Card Set
Questions about seizures & stroke