What is a seizure?
State of hyperactivity in either a section of the brain or all of the brain
Explain tonic clonic seizures.
Periods of muscle rigidity (tonic stage) followed by spazmotic twitching (clonic stage) then flaccidity & a gradual return to consciousness (postictal stage)
How do Na ion blockers work for seizure treatment?
They inhibit the influx of Na into the cell decreasing the cells ability to depolarize & propagate seizures
How do Ca ion blockers work for seizure treatment?
They inhibit influx of Ca in Ca channels in the hypothalmus
What are the 2 Na ion blockers used for seizure treatment?
Phentoin aka Dilantin
Carbamazapine aka Tegratol
What is the Ca ion blocker used for seizure treatment?
How do Benzos mitigate seizures?
They interact w/the GABA receptor-chloride ion channel complex. They hyperpolarize the membrane of the CNS neurons decreasing their response to stimuli
What factors could be used to differentiate between a seizure & a syncopal episode?
Hx of seizures
What are 4 points of seizure mgmt?
Safety of you & your pt
How do we manage status epilepticus?
25g of D50 if hypoglycemic
5-10mg diazepam IV/PR
What are the 3 types of syncopal episodes?
Cardiovascular - Dysrhythmias/mechanical
How do we manage a syncopal episode?
Position of Comfort or trendelenberg if no C-Spine issue
What are the 7 levels of a tonic clonic seizure?
What are the 2 types of partial seizures?
A simple partial seizure is described as:
One which effects only a small part of the brain & 1 part of the body
Ppl usually retain consciousness
Can progress to complex partial
A complex partial seizure is described as:
Bilat cerebral hemisphere involvement
Often starts as a simple partial
What are the 2 classifications of strokes?
Describe an ischemic stroke:
Blood supply to part of the brain is decreased causing dysfunction of brain tissue in that area
What are the four reasons why Ischemic strokes occur?
Describe a hemorrhagic stroke:
One caused by an accumulation of blood anywhere within the skull vault
What are the S&S of a stroke?
Questions about seizures & stroke