1. Pueblo Peoples
    A group of people in the Rio Grande valley that constructed intricate systems to water their cornfields. They also built dwellings in villages of multistoried, terraced buildings. Pueblo means village in Spanish. Their social society was less developed.
  2. Maize
    Indian corn.
  3. Mound Builders of the OH River Valley
    A Mississippian culture of the lower Midwest. Built the settlement of Cahokia.
  4. When did all of the indian cultures mysteriously decline?
    Around 1300 CE.
  5. Iroquois Confederacy
    Developed the political and organizational skills to sustain a robust military alliance that menaced its neighbors, Native and European alike, for well over a century.
  6. Matrilineal Cultures
    A pattern of life that conferred substantial authority on women and power and possessions passed down the female side of the family line. Used by many Indian cultures.
  7. Sugar
    Was a rare luxury in Europe and was very expensive.
  8. Marco Polo
    An Italian adventurer who returned to Europe from China in 1295 and told tales of his 20 year sojourn. His book stimulated European desires for a cheaper route to the treasures of the East.
  9. Slavery In Africa
    Arab flesh merchants and Africans had traded slaves for centuries before the Europeans arrived. The slavers routinely charged higher prices for captives from distant sources because they could not return to their native villages or be easily rescued by their kin. Slavery by its very nature inhibited the expression of regional African cultures and tribal identities.
  10. Bartholomeu Dias
    Rounded the tip of Africa in 1488.
  11. Vasco da Gama
    Reached India by sea and returned home with a small cargo of jewls and spices in 1498.
  12. Unification of Spain
    Ended the fighting between the Catholics and the Protestants through the marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile. Caused the brutal expulsion of Muslim Moors from Spain and caused a desire to out-do the Portuguese rivals.
  13. Christopher Columbus
    An Italian seafarer who persuaded the Spanish monarchs to give him three ships. He set sail westward and landed in the Bahamas on October 12, 1492. He believed he had reached India and called the place the Indies.
  14. Vasco Nunez Balboa
    The discoverer of the Pacific Ocean in 1513 and boldly claimed for Spain all the lands that touched that ocean.
  15. Ferdinand Magellan
    Started from Spain in 1519 with five ships. He was slain in the Philippines and one remaining vessel arrived back home in 1522 completing the first circumnavigation of the globe.
  16. Juan Ponce de Leon
    Explored Florida which he thought was an island. He was seeking gold and the mythical fountain of youth but died from an indian arrow.
  17. Francisco Coronado
    Explored the southwestern USA in 1540-1542 and discovered the Grand Canyon and Colorado Rivers. He was looking for the fabled golden cities but did not find them.
  18. Hernando de Soto
    Went on a gold seeking expedition from 1539-1542. He explored from Florida to the Mississippi River but died of disease and mistreated the Indians.
  19. Fransisco Pizarro
    Crushed the Inca's in Peru in 1532.
  20. Bartolome de Las Casas
    A Spanish missionary who was appalled by the encomienda system and said it was invented by Satan.
  21. Hernan Cortes
    Defeated the Aztecs in 1521.
  22. Malinche (Dona Marina)
    A female Indian slave who knew both Mayan and Nahuatl and she became a translator for Cortes. When she learned Spanish she was baptized as Dona Marina.
  23. Moctezuma
    Aztec chieftain.
  24. Quetzalcoatl
    Aztec god who's return from the Eastern sea was predicted in Aztec legends. Cortes was thought to be this god and was therefore welcomed unopposed.
  25. Giovanni Caboto or John Cabot
    Sent by the English to explore the northeastern coast of NA in 1497 and 1498.
  26. Giovanni Verrazano
    Dispatched by the French to probe the eastern seaboard in 1524.
  27. Jacques Cartier
    Sent by the French in 1534 to explore the St. Lawrence River.
  28. Robert de La Salle
    Sent by the French in the 1680s to explore the Mississippi River and begin settlement.
  29. Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo
    Explored the Californian coast in 1542.
  30. Father Junipero Serra
    Founded 21 missions in California starting in San Diego between 1769 and 1823.
  31. Battle of Acoma (1599)
    Fought between Spaniards under Don Juan de Oñate and the Pueblo Indians in present-day New Mexico. Spaniards brutally crushed the Pueblo peoples and established the territory as New Mexico in 1609.
  32. Aztecs
    Native American empire that controlled present-day Mexico until 1521, when they were conquered by Spanish Hernán Cortés. The Aztecs maintained control over their vast empire through a system of trade and tribute, and came to be known for their advances in mathematics and writing, and their use of human sacrifices in religious ceremonies.
  33. Black Legend
    False notion that Spanish conquerors did little but butcher the Indians and steal their gold in the name of Christ
  34. Cahokia (c. 1100 A.D.)
    Mississippian settlement near present-day East St. Louis, home to as many as 25,000 Native Americans.
  35. Canadian Shield
    First part of the North American landmass to emerge above sea level.
  36. capitalism
    Economic system characterized by private property, generally free trade, and open and accessible markets. European colonization of the Americas, and in particular, the discovery of vast bullion deposits, helped bring about Europe’s transition to capitalism.
  37. caravel
    Small regular vessel with a high deck and three triangular sails. Caravels could sail more closely into the wind, allowing European sailors to explore the Western shores of Africa, previously made inaccessible due to prevailing winds on the homeward journey.
  38. civilization
    Form of political society that traditionally combines centralized government with a high degree of ethnic and cultural unity. The Aztec and Inca empires in South America are early examples of civilizations in the New World.
  39. Columbian Exchange
    The transfer of goods, crops and diseases between New and Old World societies after 1492.
  40. conquistadores
    Sixteenth-century Spaniards who fanned out across the Americas, from Colorado to Argentina, eventually conquering the Aztec and Incan empires.
  41. encomienda
    Spanish government’s policy to “commend,” or give, Indians to certain colonists in return for the promise to Christianize them. Part of a broader Spanish effort to subdue Indian tribes in the West Indies and on the North American mainland
  42. Incas
    Highly advanced South American civilization that occupied present-day Peru until they were conquered by Spanish forces under Francisco Pizarro in 1532. The Incas developed sophisticated agricultural techniques, such as terrace farming, in order to sustain large, complex societies in the unforgiving Andes Mountains.
  43. mestizos
    People of mixed Indian and European heritage, notably in Mexico.
  44. middlemen
    In trading systems, those dealers who operate between the original producers of goods and the retail merchants who sell to consumers. After the eleventh century, European exploration was driven in large part by a desire to acquire alluring Asian goods without paying heavy tolls to Muslim middlemen.
  45. noche triste (June 30, 1520)
    “Sad night”, when the Aztecs attacked Hernán Cortés and his forces in the Aztec capital, Tenochitlán, killing hundreds. Cortés laid siege to the city the following year, precipitating the fall of the Aztec Empire and inaugurating three centuries of Spanish rule.
  46. plantation system
    Large-scale agricultural enterprise growing commercial crops and usually employing coerced or slave labor. European settlers established plantations in Africa, South America, the Caribbean and the American South
  47. Popé’s Rebellion (1680)
    Pueblo Indian rebellion which drove Spanish settlers from New Mexico
  48. three-sister farming
    Agricultural system employed by North American Indians as early as 1000 A.D.; maize, beans and squash were grown together to maximize yields.
  49. Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
    Signed by Spain and Portugal, dividing the territories of the New World. Spain received the bulk of territory in the Americas, compensating Portugal with titles to lands in Africa and Asia.
  50. Hiawatha
    Leader of the Iroquois Confederacy
Card Set
Ch. 1