1. What's the characteristic clinical pattern of symptoms in MS?
    Waxing and waning unilateral visual impiarment (diplopia/optin neuritis) and facial numbness
  2. What's the etiology of MS?
    Immune mediated demyelination via CD4 against myelin antigens
  3. What's the genetic association of MS?
    • HLA DR2
    • 15x higher prevelence in first-degree relatives
  4. What's the location of MS involvement?
    Angles of lateral ventricle, (50%) optic neves, brainstem, cerebellum
  5. What are histological features of active MS disease?
    • PAS-Positive macrophages
    • perivascular cuffs
    • Axonal preservation
  6. What's the charcterisitc lab finding of MS?
    Oligoclonal bands in CSF electrophoresis
  7. What are clinical symptoms of severe Poliovirus infection?
    • Fever/neck rigidity
    • cramping, muscle pain, fasiculations
    • Respiratory paralysis
  8. What are gross features of polio encephalomyelitis?
    • Congestions/edema of cord
    • Hemorrhage within cord gray matter
  9. Where's the primary spinal cord involvement in polio encephalomyelitis?
    • Anterior horn MN destruction
    • Progression to cranial nerve nuclei (bulbar polio)
  10. What are the common clinical symptoms of poliovirus infection?
    mild gastroenteritis
  11. What's the most common demographic for polio infection?
    Rural disadvantaged areas with lack of immunization
  12. What's the most common area of involvement of medulloblastoma/PNET?
    85% cerebellum
  13. What's the common histological pattern of medulloblastoma?
    • Anaplastic cells with hyperchromatic nuclei
    • Small blue cell
    • Mitosis
    • Homer Wright Rosettes
  14. What are the most common areas of involvement for cysticercosis?
    brain, muscles, skin, heart
  15. What is the most common clincial symptom of neurocysticercosis?
    • Seizures (active cystic lesions) -> Antigenic Hydrocephalus -> Demise
    • Calcifications
  16. What's the best method for detection of cysticercosis?
    • EITB
    • Poor in single/calcified involvement
  17. What's the species of infection in cysticercosis?
    Taenia solium
  18. What are clinical findings of meningitis?
    • Fever, headache, stiff neck, stupor
    • Kernig sign, Brudinski sign
  19. What's the Kernig sign?
    with thigh flexed, the leg cannot be extended
  20. What's the Brudzinski signs
    With flexion of neck there is reflex flexion of ankle, knee and hip
  21. What's normal ICP?
    Less than 200 mm H2O
  22. What are CSF signs of bacterial meningitis?
    • cloudy or purulent fluid
    • increased pressure
    • numerous neutrophils
    • increased protein
    • decreased glucose
  23. What are CSF signs of viral meningitis?
    • elevated lymphocytes
    • mild protein elevation
    • normal glucose
  24. What are CSF signs of TB meningitis?
    • elevated lymphocytes
    • marked protein elevation
    • very low glucose
  25. What histological finding is present in bacterial meningitis?
    Neutrophilig infiltrate in subarachnoid space without extension into parenchyma
  26. What's the cause of bacterial meiningitis in neonates?
    Group B streptococci, E. coli
  27. What's the cause of bacterial meiningitis in Infants and children?
    Staph pneumoniae
  28. What's the cause of bacterial meiningitis in adolescents nad young adults with petichiae/purpuric skin lesions?
    N. meningitidis
  29. What's the cause of bacterial meiningitis in the very young/old?
    Listeria monocytogenes
  30. What are gross findings in Rabies Encephalitis
    Edema and vascular congestion of brain/brain stem
  31. What are histological findings in Rabies Encephalitis?
    Neuronal degeneration, chronic inflamation, negri bodies
  32. What's the location of involvement of chronic inflamation in Rabies Encephalitis?
    Mid-brain, basal ganglia, floor of 4th ventricle
  33. Whats the etiology/pathogenesis of Rabies Encephalitis?
    • Ascending through peripheral nerves to CNS
    • 1-3 month 'lag time' depending on location of bite
  34. What are clinical symptoms of Rabies Encephalitis?
    • CNS Excitability
    • Painful, violent motor response/convulsions
    • Hydrophobia
    • Respiratory failure
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