What are 3 naive dialecticalism and tolerance of contradiction principals?
- Principle of change (reality is not static, in a process of constant change)
- Principle of contradicition (reality is not precise and celar, but full of contradictions)
- Principle of context (or holism, parts are meaningful only in their relations)
What are the 5 Euro-American assumptions
- Individual agency- see world as collection of obj.
- Identity-obj. have universal prop (i.e whiteness)
- Category- essential for understanding
- Truth- only one truth
- Logic- non-contradiction and excluded middle
What were the findings of the Butterfly study when given 2 polar results?
- Americans would polarize their judgements
- Asians mix the results
What are the tolerance levels for contradictory/non-contradictory proverbs for Americans? Chinese?
- Americas- high tolerance level for NON-CONTRADICTORY proverbs
- Chinese- high tolerance level for CONTRADICTORY/DIALECTICAL proverbs
Why are Chinese more willing to take financial risks?
- Because of the Cushion hypothesis
What is the Cushion Hypothesis?
- Eastern cultures have larger social networks than western, so more tolerant of financial risks.
- Asians likely to gamble because they believe friends, family will help bail them.
What is (cultural) intelligence? What does it reflect?
- Capacity to learn from experience and adapt successfully to environment
- reflects how well we perform
Is cultural free intelligence test possible?
BONUS!! Why do american students do better on shape tests?
- because they can SEPERATE OBJ from bg.
- they seperate and analyze obj!
BONUS!!Why do asian students do worse on shape tests??
- Because they look at test holistically
- (less likeley to seperate obj from bg)
What is value tradition?
- diff cultures have diff values, therefore defining culture itself.
- systematic diff in values provide bg about cultural differences
What is self tradition?
independent and interdependent selves
- independent= autonomy and distinctness (western)
- interdependent= identity is more social/other focused. (eastern)
What is Theory tradition?
Involves implicit theories in which selected domains attempt to describe judgements by culturally driven beliefs
What is Inductive Reasoning?
Induce a conclusion with given evidence
ex)see evidence, draw conclusion
What is deductive reasoing?
stating a general principle, then applying it to something specific
ex) syllogism (conclsution derived from 2 premise)
What is covariation?
people make causal inferences to explain why other people and ourselves behave in a certain way.