Culture and Reasoning

  1. What are 3 naive dialecticalism and tolerance of contradiction principals?
    • Principle of change (reality is not static, in a process of constant change)
    • Principle of contradicition (reality is not precise and celar, but full of contradictions)
    • Principle of context (or holism, parts are meaningful only in their relations)
  2. What are the 5 Euro-American assumptions
    • Individual agency- see world as collection of obj.
    • Identity-obj. have universal prop (i.e whiteness)
    • Category- essential for understanding
    • Truth- only one truth
    • Logic- non-contradiction and excluded middle
  3. What were the findings of the Butterfly study when given 2 polar results?
    • Americans would polarize their judgements
    • Asians mix the results
  4. What are the tolerance levels for contradictory/non-contradictory proverbs for Americans? Chinese?
    • Americas- high tolerance level for NON-CONTRADICTORY proverbs
    • Chinese- high tolerance level for CONTRADICTORY/DIALECTICAL proverbs
  5. Why are Chinese more willing to take financial risks?
    • Because of the Cushion hypothesis
  6. What is the Cushion Hypothesis?
    • Eastern cultures have larger social networks than western, so more tolerant of financial risks.
    • Asians likely to gamble because they believe friends, family will help bail them.
  7. What is (cultural) intelligence? What does it reflect?
    • Capacity to learn from experience and adapt successfully to environment
    • reflects how well we perform
  8. Is cultural free intelligence test possible?
  9. BONUS!! Why do american students do better on shape tests?
    • because they can SEPERATE OBJ from bg.
    • they seperate and analyze obj!
  10. BONUS!!Why do asian students do worse on shape tests??
    • Because they look at test holistically
    • (less likeley to seperate obj from bg)
  11. What is value tradition?
    • diff cultures have diff values, therefore defining culture itself.
    • systematic diff in values provide bg about cultural differences
  12. What is self tradition?
    independent and interdependent selves

    • independent= autonomy and distinctness (western)
    • interdependent= identity is more social/other focused. (eastern)
  13. What is Theory tradition?
    Involves implicit theories in which selected domains attempt to describe judgements by culturally driven beliefs
  14. What is Inductive Reasoning?
    Induce a conclusion with given evidence

    ex)see evidence, draw conclusion
  15. What is deductive reasoing?
    stating a general principle, then applying it to something specific

    ex) syllogism (conclsution derived from 2 premise)
  16. What is covariation?
    people make causal inferences to explain why other people and ourselves behave in a certain way.
Card Set
Culture and Reasoning
how does culture affect reasoning?