What is emotion?
- Transient, neuropsychological response to stimuli, excites coordiated system of components.
- informs us about relationship to status and prepares us to respond to it.
How do emotions help us?
- organize bodies and concious towards certain aims
- Communicate intentions to others
- Influence our decisions -Fear
- Aid with memory
- Capture attn
- Bond us to others (commonalities)
What are the antecedent stimulus involved in emotions?
- Expressive behavior
- Subjective experience
- Physiological rxn
- Motor behavior
What is social emotion?
- affective meanings of human experiences
- serves as both social communication and individual(adaptive, survival) values.
Emotions have _________ meaning?
"A smile signals encouragement to others to approach each other," this is a result of what social emotion?
What emotion does a loss elicit to others?
elicits comfort, help from others
What do humans share with nonhuman primate relatives?
they share common base of emotion
What are the 6 universal common emotions and what are they assoc. with?
- anger, disgust, fear, enjoyment, sadness, and surprise.
- Assoc. with unique physiological signatures in CNS and ANS.
According to Darwin, he proposed that
- Emotions are biologically based and evolutionarily adaptive
- All humans express emotions in faces in same way
According to Darwin, how do facial expressions help with communicative and adaptive values?
enables people to communicate internal states and react to emergencies BEFORE developed language.
What did Paul Ekman find about the basic universality of emotions?
- Different cultures have same feelings/expressions.
- Each emotion has unqiue facial expression
- Emotion=communicated non-verbally
Events or situatiosn that trigger an emotion are called
Process by which people evaluate events, situations that lead to them having emotions are........
What has developmental literature proved?
- Newborns smile, cry, show distaste (babies don't know happy, so they show negative (disgust) first
- 2 y/o, express anger and sadness
- Preschool- express all basic emotions
T/F- Emotional expresses emerge in the same sequence at roughly same age blind children are born
What has studies of congenitally blind indivuals have shown?
- show same emotions/expressions posed by sighted individuals
- facial emotions are genetically encoded, NOT socially learned
Universality in Expressive Behavior:
Studying blind and nonhuman primates evidenced that...
discrete facial expressions are universal, genetically encoded, and linked with primate ancestors in evolution.
What did researchers find under the Facial Feedback Hypothesis?
- ANGER AND FEAR accelerate <3 rate. Fear produces colder fingers though.
- Distinctive physiological response pattern emerged for the 6 common emotions (anger, fear, sadness, disgust, contempt, surpirse) through reliving or made correspond facial expression.
What were the universality of Patterns of Arousal?
- Similar physiological symptoms x-culturally. physiology is more universal.
- Self-report is more culture-specific than expressive behavior.
Various responses of emotion are related to each other in a meaningfulway through what system?
- Emotion response system coherence.
- X-cultural coherence occurs between:
- self-reported expressive behaviors, emo. experiences, and physiology
- between emo intensity and physiology.
- between verbal and nonverbal expressions
What 6 emotions are universally recognized?
- anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise
- other possible emos include: contempt, pride, embarassment
What do universal emotional processes allow humans to do?
cope, adapt, respond with problems in social lives
What is the value theory of emotion?
- Americans: value and place importance on feelings and emotions. It's all about feeling good!
- Other cultures: no words to describe emotions or their concept of emo is diff. from Eng. word.
What doAmericans and Chinese value in emotions?
- Americans: highly aroused emotions are best
- Chinese: highly value low arousal emotions
According to the Chinese, how much value of emotionality should be expressed? What does it suggest?
- Chinese believe in moderation in emotional responding.
- Extreme emotions is seen as detrimental to health
- suggests it improves group fxning. (hide strong emotions)
Some emotional words have no equivalent in other cultures, but it doesn't mean it doesn't exist in their culture. What does it suggest?
Suggests that different cultures divide emotional world differently
What approach involves emotions of a set of "socially shared script" that are linked with culture and develops as individuals are enculturated?
Cultural constructionist approach
Misconceptions of emotions
Frequencies of antecedents vary X-culturally, bringing out a certain emotion. Which culture would feel more sad from death of family/close friends, physical seperation from loved ones, and world news?
Problems in relationships trigger more of what emotion in the Japanese?
Situations involving relations triggered more anger more frequently for which culture?
Situations involving strangers triggered more anger frequently for which culture?
Frequency of emotions:
- what is important is what is frequent. If emotion is frequent--> important!
- but not all the time-muslims avoid lost pride, so situation related to honor or pride is avoided.
If emotion is not consistent with cultural beliefs, it becomes less visible..what is this called?
Visibility of Emotions
Cultural differences in appraisal processes require...
- judgements of fairness and morality
- ex) african countries appraised situations are more immoral, unfair, and externally caused than other countries
- asians look at external causes
According to a Cognitive Appraisal study by Matsumoto, the US attribute causes of negative emotions to whom? Japanese?
- U.S-to others, while believing actions are necessary for emotions
Scherer asked "what is the cause of emotion?"- What were his findings on Individualistic-Collectivistic differences?
- Individualism-attributed causes on others
- Collectivism-attributed causes on themselves
Scherer found that in "Fairness Appraisals" that the higher you are an individual in collectivist enviornment the...
less likely to use Fairness Appraisal to understand situation
What are Cultural Dispaly Rules?
- Rules that dictate how universal emotional expressions should be modified according to social situation
- ex) What degree can you display your emotion
According to Cole's study on display rules, what did he find when 3yr old gils were given an unattractive gift?
They smiled--> learned a display rule and signaled a fake emotion
The original display rule studied (with American and Japanese participants viewing highly stressful films) showed that Americans...
- have no display rules.
- Whereas Japanese, who smiled at disgusted films, suggest there is a cultural display rule when people are around (feel pressured)
What are decoding rules?
rules on how emotional expressions are recognized
What is ingroup advantage?
- Ability to recognize emotions of people of same culture better than different culture
- no emperical evidence.
Americans are better at recognizing universal emotions because...
it may be due to Individualism (better recognize uni. emotions)
In emotion regulation, its not just about regulating feelings and behaviors, but also..
change in contexts, switch attn focus, changing appraisals, and subjective experience.
What is the prupose of emotion regulation?
to keep consistent with cultural norms.
According to Bernstein, In the U.S, lower class family use ____ to control emotions, whereas middle class family use ____ control suggesting change in emotions (such as feel happy, be strong)
Which religions consider social order and obedience important virtues?
Indian and Buddhist
Children fake emotions in order to react appropriately is a sign of_____
Bittersweet emotions are often less experienced in Americans (feeling opposite emotions at once). In this case, negative emotions correlate with what level of well being in America?
What country can experience 2 dialectical emotions simultaneously?
Subjective experience and emotion language may be culture-specific such as..
- Emotional reactions