1. diathermy Greek word means
    through heat
  2. 3 types of SWD
    • longwave (300-30m)
    • shortwave (30-3m)
    • microwave (3-.03m)
  3. diathermy is
    • elctromagnetic or electric energy converted into heat energy in the body tissue.
    • heat energy is produced by resistance of the body tissue to the passage of the energy
  4. SWD can be delivered by
    continuous or pulsed electromagnetic waves
  5. SWD frequency
    • is nonionizing radiation and is 27.12 MHz with a wavelength of 11m
    • the high frequency will not allow depolarization of motor nerves or elicit a contraction from innervated or denervated skeletal muscle
  6. SWD has two circuits
    • primary circuit
    • secondary circuit
  7. primary circuit
    connected to the power supply is also called a machine or power circuit
  8. secondary circuit
    is connected to the patient and it is called the patient circuit
  9. power supply
    AC current to power machine
  10. power amplifier
    is used to increase the power output to a level that is appropriate for treatment
  11. patient tuning circuit
    • must be done to bring the oscillating frequency of the patient circuit in resonance (in tune) with that of the machine
    • can be automatic or manual
    • output can be adjusted once this is done
  12. patient output circuit
    2 types
    • applicators that produce heat energy that is delivered to patient
    • electic field (capacitive or condensor)
    • electromagnetic (inductive field)
  13. electric field
    • air spaced condensor electrodes, rubber pad electodes
    • energy oscillates between the two condensor plates and thermal effect is produced due to tissue resistance
    • patient is part of the circuit
    • one pad is positive and one negative
    • single layer towel to prevent contact with skin
  14. coplanar arrangement
    pads are parallel. seperated by a distance of at least one pad. greater distance greater depth. high conductivity tissue like muscle are more heated
  15. contraplanar arrangement
    pads can be in series. plates facing each other across jt. heats tissue with high resistance (fat) treatment of deep internal organs, large jts and big muscle groups
  16. electromagnetic field
    one attachment must have a coil (may be inside drum). penetration is limited. pt is not part of the circuit. the circuit is a magnetic field produced by the patient circuit. current is induced within the body part of the pt
  17. in electromagnetic field energy is absorbed mostly in
    muscle and blood and produces deeper heating
  18. eddy current
    electric currents induced in the body part produce small or circular shaped currents responsible for the heating
  19. single drum
    • monode or minode
    • coil inside teh drum
    • used to treat a single body surface
    • require one towel between pt and drum
  20. multiple unit drum
    • diplode
    • coil inside drum that is hinged so that more than one surface can be treated
    • require one towel between pt and drum
  21. cable or coil wrap
    • wrap around extremity
    • pancake like wrap out of the cable
    • spacers are used to prevent the cable from touching each other
    • requires 2-4 layers of towels
  22. dosage
    • dose 1 (lowest) no sensation of heat (acute)
    • dose 2 (low) mild heating sensation, barely felt (sub acute)
    • dose 3 (medium) moderate, but pleasant heat sensation (sub acute)
    • dose 4 (heavy) vigorous heating below pain threshold
  23. duration of treatment
    • acute- 2 to 3 times daily with dose 1 or 2 for 15 minutes
    • chronic- 3 or 4 15 to 30 minutes
    • 20-30 min treatments are therapeutically beneficial (takes 3-8 min for tissue to reach temp)
  24. indications for SWD
    bursitis, DJD, fracture healing (after closed methods) indirect healing of perivascular disease, joint contractures, muscle spasms, PID, pleurisy sacroiliac strains,
  25. contraindications for SWD
    acute inflammatory, active bleeding, cardiac insufficiency, decreased sensitivity, epiphyses of growing bone, fever, infections, malignancis, metal, older or younger pt's pacemaker, PVD, pregnant
  26. precautions for SWD
    • metallic objects
    • electro-medical devices
    • high fluid volume tissues
    • casts
    • moist clothing
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