Biology exam IV

  1. Phototropism
    Plants bend towards light
  2. Far red light
    shade conditions
  3. Blue light
    sunny conditions
  4. Photoperiod
    reletive llength of day and night
  5. Short day (long night) plants
    minimum hours of night for flowering
  6. Long day (short night) plants
    maximum number of hours of night for flowering
  7. Day-neutral plants
    mature regardless of photoperiod
  8. Hormone
    molecule that regulates developemental process
  9. Auxin (indole acetic acid)
    • Stimulate cell elongation in shoot
    • Hinders cell elongation in root
  10. shoot elongation
    auxin accumulates on shaded side of shoot, elongating those cells
  11. Path of Auxin
    Auxin always travels down the plant
  12. Polar
    Axuin always travels downwards
  13. Gravitropism
    Auxin regulates the downward growth of roots
  14. Image Upload 1
    Image Upload 2
  15. Image Upload 3
  16. Leaf abscision
    loss of leafs in deciduous trees
  17. Abscision layer
    consisting of weak, colorless, thin-walled cells that allow the leaf to separate easily when a gust of wind comes along
  18. carotenoids
    • yellow and orange hue of leaves
    • chloroplast break down
  19. anthocyanin
    • red and purple hue
    • sugar concentration
  20. Virulent
    the ability of a pathogen to overcome the immune system of its host
  21. Hypersensative response (HR)
    Inital, localized response to a pathogen
  22. Pathogenesis-related loci (PR)
    protect tissues distant from the inital site of infection
  23. Systematic Aquired resistance (SAR)
    production of protective compounds throught the plant
  24. Plant physical defenses (against herbivores)
    thorn, spines,
  25. Biochemical defense of plants
    • proteinase inhibitors
    • poison
  26. Protienase inhibitors
    shut down digestive proteins
  27. ovary
    part of the carpel that contains the ovules
  28. Pericarp
    • ovary wall developes into protective structure
    • encloses the seed
    • aides in dispersal
  29. Zygote
    • fertalized ovule
    • formed by fussion of sperm and egg
  30. Triploid Endosperm
    formed by fusion of two polar nuclei
  31. Fertalized ovule becomes_____
  32. Zygote becomes_____
    embryo/ developing plant
  33. Endosperm becomes____
    • nutritional tissue
    • (fruit)
  34. Outermost layer of ovule becmes_____
    protective seed coat
  35. FLower is composed of 4 parts
    • sepal
    • petal
    • stamen
    • carpel
  36. stamen composed of two parts
    • filament
    • anther
  37. Microsporophytes
    diploid cells inside the anther
  38. Microsporophytes undergo___ to form___ ____ microspores
    • meiosis
    • 4
    • haploid
  39. Microspores undergo ____ to form ___ _____
    • mitosis
    • male
    • gametophytes
  40. pollen grain
    male gametophyte
  41. generative cell
    immiture pollen grains
  42. Tube cell
    large vegitative cell
  43. generative cells form___
    4 sperm
  44. carpel made up of 3 parts
    • stigma
    • style
    • ovary
  45. Stigma (function)
    specialized for reciving pollen
  46. style (function)
    supports stigma
  47. Ovary
    contains developing ovules
  48. after fertilization, ovary becomes___
    the fruit
  49. ovule contains single____
  50. Micropyle
    narrow canal in ovule covering
  51. megasporocyte undergoes__ to form ___ ____ ___
    • meiosis
    • 4
    • haploid
    • megaspores
  52. megaspore divides ___ times to create____ _____
    • 3
    • 8
    • nuclei
  53. female gametophyte contains___ and ____
    • egg
    • 2 polar nuclei
  54. Polar nuclei
    center of the female gametophyte
  55. self compatable flowers
    can pollinate themelves
  56. self-incompatable flowers
    require pollen from a different plant
  57. Pollen tube
    tube formed by a pollen grain that conveys the sperm nuclei to the female gametophyte
  58. double fertilization
    one sperm nuclei fuses with the egg to form a zygote, the other sperm fuses witht the two polar nuclei to form the tripoloid endosperm
  59. endosperm
    triploid tissue in the seed of the plant that provides nutrients to the developing embryo
  60. basal cell
    • bottem daughter cell formed when a zygote divides for the first time
    • divides to form a single row of cells
  61. Terminal cell
    • top daughter cell formed when zygote divides for the first time
    • parent cell of al cells in the embryo
  62. Cotyledon
    a small leaf of plant embryo, used for storing and digesting nutrients and/or early photosynthesis
  63. Eudicot plant has ___ cotyledons
  64. monocot plant has ___ cotyledon
  65. Hypotcotyl
    • stem of mature plant embryo
    • region between cotyledon and radicle
  66. radicle
    embryotic root
  67. cotyledon
    embryotic leaf
  68. biome
    any of the worlds major ecosytems classified according to the predominent vegitation and charactization by adaptation of organisms to tha particular environment
  69. on land, biomes are mainly shaped by ___
  70. Hadley cell
    a pattern of global atmospheric circulation that controls the climate in tropics and sub-tropics
  71. Rain shadow
    region of reduced rainfall on the leeward side of high mountain ranges
  72. Carrying capicity
    maximum number of individual in a population that can be supported in a particular habitat in a sustained period of time
  73. Mark-recapture
    sampling technique used for determining wildlife population density.
  74. Sample plot method
    counting all the organisms in selected plots of known size, then extrapolating to estimate the size of the entire population.
  75. symbiosis includes 4 types of relationships
    • predation
    • mutualism
    • commensalism
    • parasitism
  76. the highest expected species richness is predicted on ____ islands ____ to sources of potential colonists
    • large
    • close
  77. the colonization rate is higher on___ and ___islands than on far and large islands
    • near
    • small
  78. Biogeography
    The study of the past and present distribution of species.
Card Set
Biology exam IV
Part I