final exam.txt

  1. Origin
    • Less movable of the two points
    • Attaches to the more fixed part o the skeleton
    • Color code = red
  2. Insertion
    • More movable of the two points
    • Color code = blue
  3. Belly
    Fleshy par between origin and insertion
  4. When a muscle contracts it usually movies the point of I
    toward the point of O
  5. Usually O = ? and I = ?
    • O = proximal
    • I = distal
  6. If a muscle crosses a joint then it acts as a
  7. Name of muscle
    • Fiber direction
    • Location
    • Size
    • Number or origins
    • Shape
    • O&I
    • Action
  8. Orbicularis oculi
    • Sphincter muscle of the eyelid; follows a circular path around orbit
    • Origin: Medial wall of orbit (frontal and maxillary bones)
    • Insertion: eyelid tissue
    • Actions: closes eye
    • Nerve: facial nerve (CN VII)7
  9. Orbicularis oris
    • Mostly circular muscle of lips and around the mouth
    • Origin: largely from other facial muscles surrounding the mouth
    • Insertion: muscles and skin at angles of mouth; encircles mouth
    • Actions: compression, contraction and protrusion of lips
    • Nerve: facial nerve (CN VII)
  10. Zygomaticus major
    • Small, strap like muscle running diagonally from the cheek to the angle of the mouth
    • Origin: zygomatic bone
    • Insertion: skin and muscles at angels of mouth and upper lip
    • Actions: draws angles of mouth backward and upward (smile)
    • Nerve: facial nerve (CN VII)7
  11. Sternocleidomastoideus
    • Strap-like muscles on the anterolateral aspect of neck
    • Origin: manubrium of the sternum and medial part of the clavicle
    • Insertion: mastoid process of temporal bone
    • Actions: bilateral contraction: flex head. Unilateral contraction: rotates face toward side opposite of contracting muscles
    • Nerve: accessory nerve (CN XI (11)), C2, and C3
  12. External abdominal oblique
    • Superficial muscle of the lateral abdominal wall; fivers run obliquely downward and medially
    • Origin: anterior surface of lower 8 ribs
    • Insertion: linea alba, pubic crest and iliac crest
    • Actions: bilateral contraction: helps flex vertebral column and compresses abdomen; acts in forced exhalation
    • Unilateral contractions: aid in trunk rotation and lateral flexion
    • Nerve: intercostals nerves (T7-T12)
  13. Rectus Abdominis
    • Superficial strap-like muscle of the medial abdominal wall; broken into three segments by tendinous intersections
    • Origin: pubic crest and symphasis
    • Insertion: xihoid process and costal cartilage of ribs 5-7
    • Actions: flexes vertebral column and compressed abdomen; acts in forced exhalation
    • Nerve: intercostals nerves (T7-T12)
  14. Serratus anterior
    • Fan-shaped muscle with a serrated anterior border; located deep to pectorals major anteriorly and deep to the scapula posteriorly
    • Origin: outer surface of ribs (1-8)
    • Insertion: anterior surface of vertebral border of scapula
    • Actions: draws the scapula forward and laterally; acts strongly in pushing
    • Nerve: long thoracic nerve
  15. Trapezius
    • Trapezoid-shaped muscle of the superficial back
    • Origin: occipital bone, ligamentum nuchae, spinous process of C7-C12
    • Insertion: clavicle acromion and spine of scapula
    • Actions: upper portion: elevates scapulas
    • Middle potion � adducts scapula
    • Lower portion- depresses scapula
    • Nerve: accessory nerve (CN XI) c3 and c4
  16. Latissimus dorsi
    • Flat, triangular shaped muscle of the lower back; upper portion is deep to trapizus
    • Origin: iliac crest, lumbodorsal fascia, spinous process of T7-T12, ribs 9-12
    • Insertion: floor of Intertubercular groove of humerus
    • Actions: extends, adducts and medially rotates humerus
    • Nerve: thoracodorsal nerve
  17. Pectoralis major
    • Large, fan, shaped muscle of the anterior chest
    • Origin: clavicle, sternum and costal cartilages of upper 6 ribs
    • Insertion: lateral lip of Intertubercular grove
    • Actions: flexes, addicts and medially rotates humerus
    • Nerve: medial and lateral pectoral nerves
  18. Detoideus
    • Thick triangular muscle that caps the shoulder
    • Origin: clavicle, acromion and spine of scapula
    • Insertion: deltoid tuberosity of humerus
    • Actions: as a whole primarily acts in arm abduction
    • Anterior fibers � flex humerus
    • Middle fibers � abduct humerus
    • Posterior fibers � extend humerus
    • Nerve: axillary nerve
  19. Biceps brachii
    • Two-headed muscle; belly of muscle is located in the anterior compartment of the brachium
    • Origin: short head � coracoids process of scapula
    • Long head- supraglenoid tubercle of scapula
    • Insertion: radial tuberosity of radius
    • Actions: flexes and supinates forearm
    • Nerve: musculocutaneous nerve
  20. Triceps brachii
    • Three headed muscle; belly is located in the posterior compartment of the brachium
    • Origin: long head � infraglenoid tuberacle
    • Lateral head � posterior and lateral surfaces of humerus
    • Medial head � posterior surface of humerus
    • Insertion: Olecranon process of ulna
    • Actions: extends forearm
    • Nerve: radial nerve
  21. Extensor digitorum
    • Superficial muscle of the posterior antebrachium
    • Origin: lateral epicondyle of humerus
    • Insertion: distal phalanges of fingers 2-5 (by 4 tendons)
    • Actions: extends wrist and fingers
    • Nerve: radial nerve
  22. Flexor digitorum superficialis
    • Two headed muscle of the anterior compartment of the antebrachium; visible distally but is deep to a serious of muscles proximally
    • Origin: medial epicondle of humerus, coronoid process of ulna, shaft of radius
    • Insertion: middle phalanges of finders 2-5 (by four tendons)
    • Actions: flexes write and middle phalanges of fingers 2-5
    • Nerve: median nerve
  23. Gluteus maxims
    • Large, superficial muscle of the Gluteal region; forms most of the buttock
    • Origin: iliac crest, sacrum and coccyx
    • Insertion: Gluteal tuberosity of femur and iliotibial tract
    • Actions: extends and laterally rotates thigh
    • Nerve: inferior Gluteal nerve
  24. Satorius
    • Long-strap like muscle of the anterior thigh; crosses the thigh obliquely from the hip to the medial knee
    • Origin: anterior superior iliac spine
    • Insertion: medial aspect of proximal tibia (by aponeurosis)
    • Actions: flexes, abducts, and laterally rotates thigh; flexes leg
    • Nerve: femoral nerve
  25. Quadriceps femoris
    • Large muscle mass located in the anterior thigh; formed by four separate muscles that have a common insertion; include rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius and vastus medialis
    • General origin: anterior inferior iliac spine and femur
    • Insertion: patella and tibial tuberosity vie patellar ligament
    • Actions: all four extends leg; rectus femoris also flexes thigh
    • Nerve: femoral nerve
  26. Hamstring muscles
    • Large muscles mass located in the posterior thigh; formed by three separate muscle that have a common origin; included semimembranouss, semitendinous and biceps femoris
    • General origin: Ischial tuberosity (all3 3) linea aspera (BF)
    • Insertion:
    • Semimembranousus � medial condyle of tibia
    • Smeitendinosus � proximal medial surface of tibia
    • Biceps femoris � lateral condyle of tibia and head of fibula
    • Actions: extend thigh and flex knee
    • Nerve: tibial nerve
  27. Gastrocnemius
    • Two-headed, superficial muscle of the posterior leg; helps form your calf
    • Origin: lateral and medial condyles of femur (by two heads)
    • Insertion: calcaeus via the Calcaneal (Achilles) tendon
    • Actions: plantarflex foot and flex leg
    • Nerve: tibial nerve
  28. Soleus
    • Broad, flat muscle located deep to gastronmius in the posterior compartment of the leg; looks like a filet of fish
    • Origin: proximal portions of the tibia, fibula and interosseous membrane
    • Insertion: Calcanealus via the Calcaneal (achillies) tendon
    • Actions: plantar flex foot
    • Nerve: tibial nerve
  29. Tibialis anterior
    • Superficial muscle of the anterior left. Runs along the lateral aspect of the tibias anterior margin
    • Origin: lateral condyle, upper 2/3 of tibia and interosseus membrane
    • Insertion: first metatarsal and medial (first_ cuneiform
    • Actions: dorsiflexes (extends) and inverts foot
    • Nerve: deep Peroneal (fibular nerve
  30. Peroneus (fibularis)muscles
    • Muscle mass in the lateral compartment of the leg: includes peroneus longus and perneus brevis
    • General origin: fibula and lateral condyle of tibia
    • Insertion: peroneus brevis � 5th metatarsal
    • Peroneus longus � 1st metatarsal and first (media) cunieiform
    • Actions: plantarflex and everts foot
    • Nerve: superficial Peroneal (fibular nerve
    • Masseter
    • Muscle that laterally covers the Mandibular ramus
    • Origin:
    • zygomatic arch
    • Insertion: angle and ramus of mandible
    • Actions: elevates mandible; closes jaw
    • Nerve: trigeminal nerve (CN V)5
  31. Temporalis
    • Muscles of the temporal region
    • Origin: temporal fossa
    • Insertion: coronoid process of mandible
    • Actions: elevates and retracts mandible; closes jaw
    • Nerve: trigeminal nerve (CN V)
  32. External intercostals
    • Eleven pairs of muscles occurring between the ribs; superficial layer with fibers running obliquely in a downward anterior manner
    • Origin: inferior border of rib above
    • Insertion: superior border of rib below
    • Actions: draws adjacent ribs together to elevate dib cage during inspiration; acts in normal quiet breathing
    • Nerve: intercostals nerves
  33. Diaphram
    • Broad, flat muscles that forms the floor of the thoracic cavity; is pierced by the esophagus, aorta, and inferior vena cava
    • Origin: inferior, internal surface of rib cage, ziphoid process, costal cartilage, of last 6 ribs and lumbar vertebrae
    • Insertion: central tendon
    • Actions: flattens when contracting therefore increases vertical dimension of thorax; acts in normal quite breathing
    • Nerve: phrenic nerve
  34. Erector spinae
    • Three columns of muscles contributing to the deep back muscles
    • Includes: iliocostalis (lattermost), longisssimus (intermediate), and spinalis (medialmost)
    • General location: iliac crest, vertebral column (parts of lumbar, thoracic, and cervical vertebrae), ribs and skull (temporal and occipital bones)
    • Actions: extends and laterally bends the vertebral column
    • Nerve: dorsal rami of spinal nerves
  35. Thenar Muscles
    • General location: base of thumb;
    • Involves carpals, 1st metacarpal and proximal phalanx of thumb
    • General actions: opposes , abducts, and flexes the thumb
    • Actions: median nerve
  36. Hypothenar Muscles
    • General location: base of little finger;
    • Involves carpals, 5th metacarpal and proximal phalanx f little finger
    • General actions: draws little finger toward the thumb; flexes and abducts little finger
    • Nerve: Ulnar nerve
  37. Adductor Magnus
    • Large fleshy muscle in the medial compartment of the thigh
    • Origin: ischial and pubic rami and ischial tuberosity
    • Insertion: linea aspera and adductor tubercle of femur
    • Actions: adducts thigh
    • Nerve: obturator and sciatic nerves
  38. Piriformis
    • Triangular-shaped muscle; deep to gluteus maximums; the sciatic nerves passes below the inferior border of piriformis
    • Origin: anterior sacrum (opposite greater sciatic notch)
    • Insertion: upper border of greater trochanter
    • Actions: rotates thigh laterally and abducts thigh
    • Nerve: nerve to piriformis
  39. Nervous system is the body�s control center, the communication network it uses receptors to?
    Sense change
  40. The nervous system interprets and integrates information. It uses effectors to?
    Cause a response to the change
  41. Central nervous system contains the?
    Brain and the spinal cord
  42. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) uses
    Receptors to the CNS then Effectors// they are processes to the Cranial nerves and spinal nerves
  43. The peripheral nervous system may subdivide by?
    The direction of the impulse
  44. Afferent system involves what?
    • Sensory (afferent) neurons
    • Receptors ---? CNS
  45. Efferent system involves
    • Motor (efferent) neurons
    • CNS -? effectors(all body parts) ?organ that response to a motor impulse (muscle tissue cell or gland)
  46. By the various body parts involved there are
    somatic nervous system and visceral nervous system
  47. Somatic nervous system
    • is sensory neurons from cutaneous and special sense receptors in the
    • Environment; muscle and limb position = type of info
    • Head, body wall and extremities
    • Motor neurons = CNS ?skeletal muscles �voluntary�
  48. Visceral nervous system
    • Sensory neurons = Viscera ? CNS �type of info = environment, pain, cramps.
    • Motor neurons CNS ? visceral effectors = smooth muscle, cardiac muscles, and glands
  49. Subdivisions : autonomic nervous system ANS
    • Sympathetic nervous system (SNS)
    • Parasympathetic nervous system (PNS)
  50. Enteric nervous system
    Controls the function of the gut; separate from the ANS?
  51. What are the two populations of cells?
    • Neuron
    • Neuroglial cells
  52. Neuroglial or glial cells
    • Support neurons in both the CNS and PNS
    • Function:
    • Sustain neurons metabolically
    • Support neurons physically
    • Protection
    • Help regulate into levels in interstitial spaces (space between cells)
  53. Types of neuroglia within the central nervous system?
    • Astrocyte
    • Oligodendrocyte
    • Micoglial
    • Ependyma
  54. Astrocyte (CNS)
    Supports neurons (physically and metabolically)
  55. Two types of astrocytes (CNs)
    • Protoplasmic astrocyte � gray matter
    • Fibrous astrocyte (fewer processes) - white matter
  56. Oligodendrocyte (CNS)
    • Provide support neurons physically
    • Surround nerve cell bodies in the CNS
    • Myelinate axon in CNS
  57. Microglia (CNS)
    • Brain macrophages
    • Phagocytosis (microbes and debris)
    • Migrate to injury sites
  58. Ependyma
    • Lines cavities in the CNS
    • Assist in the circulation of cerebral spinal fluid
  59. Neuroglia within the peripheral nervous system
    • Schwann cell (neurolemma)
    • Satellite cells
  60. Schwann cells
    • Protection
    • Ensheath axon
  61. Satellite cells
    Supports NCB that occurs without the CNS (ganglion)
  62. What is a neuron?
    A basic functional unit of nervous tissue
  63. The neuron has three main parts:
    Nerve cell body (soma, perikaryon), dendrites and axon.
  64. Nerve cell body
    Where the slender process extends
  65. Nuclei
    Clusters of cell bodies in the CNS
  66. Nissl bodies
    An elaborate type of rough endoplasmic reticulum
  67. Axon hillock
    Just distally to the axon is a slightly enlarged cell body
  68. Dendrites
    Receptive regions (they bear receptors for neurotransmitters released by to there neurons)
  69. Axons (nerve fibers)
    Generate and conduct nerve impulses
  70. Axoplasm
  71. Axon collateral
    Each neuron has only one axon by axons may have the occasional branches along their length. Tthey extend from the axon at more or less right angles
  72. Schwann cell
    Surround and form myelin sheaths around the larger nerve fibers in the PNS
  73. Myelin sheath
    A whitish fatty protein lipoid segmented that insulates fibers and increases the speed of transmission of nerve impulses
  74. Sheath of Schwann
    Portion of the Schwann cells which includes the exposed part of its plasma membrane
  75. Node of ranvier
    Gaps in the sheath at regulate intervals along the myelinated axon
  76. Axon terminals
    Knoblike distal endings of the terminal branches are called axon terminals
  77. Structural classification of neurons is done how?
    By the number of neurons
  78. Unipolar neuron - Pseudopolar neuron
    Have a single short process that emerges from the cell body and divides like a T into proximal and distal branches
  79. Where are unipolar neurons found?
    • Retina: rods and cones
    • Embryo
  80. Bipolar neuron
    Two process extend from the cell body; one is a fused dendrite, the other is an axon
  81. Where are bipolar neurons found?
    Retina; Inner ear; Olfactory; Epithelium
  82. Multipolar neuron
    Many processes extend from the cell body; all are dendrites except a single azon
  83. Where are multipolar neurons found?
    Most common type in the CNS
  84. Sensory neuron is the afferent neuron which send information to the?
  85. Motor neuron is the Efferent neuron which sends information away from the
  86. Interneuron (association neuron; internucial neuron)
    • Within the CNS
    • Connects with other neurons
  87. Sensory in the back with receptor
    Motor in the front with the effectors
  88. Nerves of the peripheral nervous system process?
    Both sensory and or motor neurons
  89. What are the functional entities of the PNS?
    • General somatic afferent fiber (GSA)
    • � Sensations from the body � CNS
    • � Extroceptive
    • o Skin and mucosa (external stimuli)
    • o Pain, temperature, touch, pressure
    • � Proprioceptive
    • o Muscles, tendons, and joint capsules
    • o Joint position, tension of tendons, and tension of muscle fibers
    • General visceral afferent fibers (GVA)
    • � Sensations from mucosa, glands, and BV to CNS
  90. General somatic efferent fibers (GSE)
    Motor impulses � CNS ? skeletal muscles
  91. General visceral efferent fiber
    • Autonomic nerve fibers
    • Motor impulses
    • CNS ?smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands
  92. Resting membrane potential (RMP)
    • Difference in charge on either side of the cell membrane
    • Due to unequal concentrations of ions (Na+ and K+) inside and outside the cell
    • At rest it is more negative inside the cell an more positive outside the cell
  93. Many negatively charges substances (proteins an nucleic acids) do not diffuse outside or diffuse poorly
    • Na+ and K+ gradients and Na+ and K+ leak channels involved
    • More Na+ outside the cell then inside the cell
    • More K+ inside then outside
  94. Sodium potassium pump help maintain RMP; cellular system that actively transports Na+ & K+
    Requires energy; pumps sodium out of the cell and K+ into the cell (compensates for leaks)
  95. End result:
    • More negative inside
    • More positive outside
  96. All living cells are polarized
    • Polarize membrane has a difference in charge on either differ of its membrane
    • Resting membrane potential
    • This resting membrane potential is actively maintained
  97. Excitability
    • Ability of neurons to respond to stimuli
    • Response involves the generation of a nerve impulse
    • Neuron reverses and re-establishes the resting membrane potential = this generates an action potential
  98. Refractory period =
    Time when the neuron cannot generate another action potential
  99. 2 phases of refractory period
    • Absolute refractory period
    • Relative refractory period
  100. Absolute refractory period �
    Time when a second action potential CANNOT be initiates = period of Na+ permeability changes
  101. Relative refractory period -
    Time when a second action potential can be generated by only with a very strong stimulus = period of K+ permeability changes
  102. When a stimulus is strong enough to generate an action potential, the impulse is conducted where?
    • Along the entire neuron
    • At a constant and maximum strength
  103. Threshold stimulus �
    Stimulus that is strong enough to initiate an impulse
  104. Subthreshold stimulus =
    • Stimulus that is weaker then threshold
    • A series if subthreshold stimuli within correct frequency may be initiate an impulse
  105. Synapse =
    Junction between two neurons
  106. Temporal summation
    Summation due to an accumulation of neurotransmitters from a single presynaptic end bulb firing two or more times
  107. Neurotransmitter accumulats when?
    Presynaptic neuron meets with post synaptic neuron
  108. When enough accumulates,
    generates an impulse in postsynaptic neuron
  109. spatial summations:
    summations due to the accumulation of neurotransmitters from several presynaptic end bulbs
  110. Many presynaptic neurons fire simultaneously at the same
    Postsynaptic neuron
  111. Saltatory conduction has myelinated nerve fivers
    Myelinated nerve fibers insulate the nerve fibers therefore inhibits a continuous flow of ions
  112. At time zero a threshold stimulus is given which then depolarizes node A, later node A repolarizes, but node B depolarizes, then once B repolarizes , node C depolarizes
    • Increase the velocity of conduction
    • Energy efficient
  113. Speed of nerve impulses does not depend on the stimulus strength or frequency, once AP goes it has a?
    Constant speed and maximal strength
  114. Speed of nerve impulses may depend on?
    • Temperature � faster is warmer
    • Fiber diameter � faster if larger
    • Presence of myelin - faster if myelinated
  115. Specific fiber types based on conduction speed: A Fibers
    • Myelinated large fibers
    • Salutatory conduction � jumps � like a rabbit - short refractory period
    • Fast conduction speed
  116. Where are type A fibers located?
    • Large sensory neurons relating information on (GSA) � touch, pressure, joint position, temperature
    • Motor neurons ? skeletal muscles (GSE) motor
  117. B Fibers
    • Medium sized, myelinated fivers
    • Medium rate of conduction speed
    • Salutatory conduction; medium refractory period
  118. Where are B fibers located?
    • Sensory neurons from skin & viscera (GVA)
    • Visceral motor neurons that leave the CNS and end in autonomic ganglia (GVE)
  119. C Fibers
    • Smallest diameter
    • Slow conduction speed
    • Continuous conduction; long refractory period
  120. Where are C fibers located?
    • Sensory neurons from skin and viscera (GVA)
    • Neurons that conduct pain (GSA)
    • Visceral motor neurons from autonomic ganglia to visceral effectors (GVE)
  121. Neurons carry impulses to different cells: Types of junctions:
    • Neuromuscular junction neuron ? muscle cell
    • Neuroglandular Junction neuron ? gland
  122. Synapse = close association of two neurons
  123. Excitatory or inhibitory =
    • Binds reversible with specific receptors to cause an effect
    • One way impulse conduction
  124. Excitatory postsynaptic potential - EPSP, makes he postsynaptic membrane potential?
    • Less negative�.�more positive�
    • �lowers the potential�
  125. EPSP also acts to increase the sodium ion permeability which does what?
    • Opens Na+ channels � more Na+ into the cell
    • Moves the potential closer to threshold
    • Increases possibility of a causing an A.P.
  126. Facilitation of EPSP �
    • Process whereby a nerve membrane is partially depolarized by a sub threshold stimulus
    • A second subsequent sub threshold stimulus can then further depolarize the membrane to reach the threshold
    • Spatial and temporal summation
  127. Inhibitory postsynaptic potential - IPSP � raises the postsynaptic membrane potential away from the threshold
    • Hyperpolarizes the membrane
    • Become �more negative�
  128. IPSP acts to increase potassium and chloride ion permeability
    • K+ moves out of the cell
    • Cl- moves into the cell
    • Membrane becomes less permeable to Na+
  129. Combined effect
    More difficult to generate an action potential � threshold so much further away
  130. A single post synaptic neuron synapse with many ?
    Types of presynaptic neurons
  131. The post synaptic neuron responds to the _____of all presynaptic input
  132. If EPSP > IPSP but is less then threshold
    No AP; facilitation is possible
  133. If EPSP > IPSP and is threshold
    AP is generated
  134. IS IPSP > EPSP
    No AP, makes it less likely to occur
  135. At rest the sodium potassium pump maintains the
    resting membrane potential
  136. Examples of neurotransmitters:
    • Acetylcholine
    • Norepinephrine
    • Dopamine
    • Serotonin
    • GABA
    • Endorphins
  137. Acetylcholine Ach
    • Released at some neurolandular junctions, some neuromuscular junction and some synapses
    • �cholinergic� = nerve fibers that release Ach
    • Binds to postsynaptic receptors
    • EPSP � many effectors
    • IPSP � cardiac muscle
    • Inactivated by acetylcholinesterase (AChE)
    • -prevents a continuous transmission
  138. Norepinephrine - NE (biogenic amine)
    • Released at some neuroglandular junctions and some synapses
    • �adrenergic� = nerve fibers that release NE
    • Varied effects � more in ANS
    • Inactivated by catechol � o � methyltransferase (comt)
    • Monoamine Oxidase (MAO)
    • Can also be recycled back into the synaptic vesicles
  139. Dopamine
    • Biogenic amine
    • Effects varied
    • If decreased amount = Parkinson�s
    • If increased amount � schizophrenia
  140. Serotonin (5-HT)
    • Biogenic Amine;
    • Primarily inhibitory role in sleep & mood
  141. GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid)
    • Amino acid
    • Primarily inhibitory
  142. Endorphins
    • Peptide (neuropeptide)
    • Primarily inhibitory
    • Natural opiate
  143. Aggregation of myelinated axons in the CNS; lack cell bodies
    White matter
  144. Areas in the CNS with unmyelinated axons; cell bodies are present
    Gray matter
  145. Bundle of fibers/axons in the peripheral nervous system
  146. Aggregations of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS
    Ganglion (ganglia)
  147. Aggregations of nerve cell bodies inside the CNS
    Nucleus (ganglion)
  148. Bundle of fibers/axons in the CNS
  149. Conduct impulses to the CNS (higher levels)
    Ascending tract
  150. Conduct impulses from the CNS to the periphery
    Descending tract
  151. Main areas of gray matter in the spinal cord
  152. Arrangement of white matter in the spinal cord
  153. Delicate CT covering around individual unmyelinated or myelinated fibers/axons
  154. CT covering around groups of fiber bundles (fascicles) in a nerve
  155. Dense CT covering around the entire nerve
  156. Gross anatomy of the spinal cord � located with in the
    Vertebral canal
  157. How many segments?
    31 each giving rise to a pair of spinal nerves
  158. Nerves C1-C7 exit above the correspondingly numbered vertebra (via intervertebral foramen):
    There are 8 cervical spinal nerves
  159. Cervical enlargement - explain
    • Upper extremity
    • Spinal cord & vertebra levels C3-T1
  160. There are 12 pairs of thoracic spinal nerves
  161. The lumbar enlargements is the
    • Lower extremity
    • Spinal cord levels t12-S
    • Vertebra levels T9-T12
  162. Conus medullaris
    Tapered, conical end
  163. There are 5 pairs of lumbar spinal nerves
    • There are 5 pairs of sacral spinal nerves
    • There is one pair of Coccygeal spinal nerves
  164. Cauda equine = collection of spinal nerves traversing the inferior end of the vertebral canal
  165. Filum terminale
    • Extension of the pia matter
    • Non-neural
    • Anchors the spinal cord inferiorly
    • Attaches to posterior surface of the coccyx
  166. Epidural space is the space between the centra and the dura mater, it is composed of?
    White adipose tissue, CT and venous plexus
  167. The dura matter is?
    • Dense, fibrous meninx
    • Continuously with the cranial dura mater
    • Foramen magnum to S2 (close ended sac)
    • Fuses with the filum terminale
  168. The subdural space is the space between the dura mater and the arachnoid mater. It contains
    Interstitial fluid
  169. The arachnoid mater is between the subdural space and the subarachnoid space.
    • Spider web of CT fibers
    • Continuous with the arachnoid mater of the brain
    • Foramen magnum to S2 (fuses with filum terminale)
  170. The subarachnoid space contains?
    Cerebrospinal fluid
  171. The pia mater is the inner most membrane, it is?
    • Delicate CT layer with BV
    • Continuous with pia mater around the Medulla oblongata
    • Extends to coccyx from conus medullaris as the filum terminal
  172. Denticulate ligament
    Extension of the pia mater; laterally anchors the spinal cord; occurs between the dorsal and ventral roots
  173. Lumbar cistern
    Continuation of the subarachnoid space that extends from the conus medullaris to the second sacral vertebral level
  174. CSF can be drawn here w/o the danger of penetrating the spinal cord with a needle, but may injure the nerve fivers of the cauda equine
  175. Anterior gray horn has what kind of neuron?
    Somatic motor
  176. The posterior gray horn has what kind of neuron?
  177. What is the indentation in the front of the spinal cord called?
    Anterior median fissure
  178. What is the indentation in the back of the spinal cord called?
    Posterior median Sulcus
  179. What are the functions of the spinal cord?
    • Conducts impulses
    • Integrates reflexes
  180. What is a reflex arc?
    Conduction pathway involving two or more neurons; has 5 components
  181. What are the 5 components of the reflex arc?
    • Receptor
    • Sensory neuron
    • Center
    • Motor neuron
    • Effectors
  182. What would be a receptor?
    Skin & a needle
  183. What does a sensory neuron do ?
    • It carries information to an inter neuron in the center
    • A motor neuron (efferent ) then take the impulse to an effectors?
    • What would be an effecter? � skeletal muscle
  184. Reflex
    The body�s fast response to an environmental change
  185. Reflexes help maintain homeostasis associated with:
    • Skeletal muscle contraction
    • Heart rate
    • Respiration
    • Digestion
    • Urination
    • Defecation
  186. Types of reflexes
    • Spinal reflex
    • Somatic reflex
    • Visceral reflex
  187. Spinal reflex
    Involves the spinal cord as the center
  188. Somatic reflex
    Influences contraction of skeletal muscles
  189. Visceral reflex = autonomic reflex
    Influences contraction of smooth, cardiac and secretary patterns of glands
  190. Both somatic and spinal reflexes may involve?
    Higher reflexes ? brain
  191. Most spinal nerves form networks by joining with adjacent nerves =
  192. Cervical plexus and the neck is deep to?
  193. What is the cervical plexus formed by?
    Ventral rami of spinal nerves C1-C4 (C5)
  194. The cervical plexus cutaneous branches?
    Skin over the back of the head, ear region, anterior neck, and shoulder region
  195. The cervical plexus muscular branches?
    Muscles of the neck (trapezius (C3, C4) and sternocleidomastoideus(C2, C3)) and the diaphragm (phrenic nerve) + accessory nerve in both cases
  196. Brachial plexus and upper extremities located in the ?
    Neck and axilla
  197. Brachial plexus is formed by the
    Ventral rami of the spinal nerves C5-T1
  198. Cutaneous branch of brachial plexus?
    Skin over the shoulder region and all parts of the upper extremity
  199. Muscular branches of the brachial plexus
    Muscles of the shoulder and upper extremity
  200. Lumbosacral plexus and lower extremities is the ?
    Lumbar plexus + sacral plexus
  201. The lumbar plexus is located?
    Within the psoas major
  202. The lumbar plexus is formed by the
    Ventral rami of spinal nerves
  203. Lumbar plexus cutaneous branches?
    Skin over lower abdomen, buttock, external genitalia, many thigh regions, medial leg and food
  204. Lumbar plexus muscular branches
    Muscles of the lower abdomen (illiohypogastric & ilioinguinal nerves) as well as the medial thigh (oburator nerve (adductor magnus (part))) and anterior thigh (femoral nerve (rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis; satorius (quadriceps femoris))) regions
  205. Sacral plexus is located ?
    Along the posterolateral wall of the pelvis (anterior to the sacrum)
  206. Sacral plexus if formed by the?
    Ventral rami of spinal nerves
  207. Lumbosacral trunk =
    • L4-L5 contribution that join the sacral plexus
    • Cutaneous branch of sacral plexus
    • Skin over Gluteal region, external genitalia, and lower extremity
  208. Muscular branches of sacral plexus
    Muscles of the lower extremity
  209. Sciatic nerve =
    Tibial nerve + common Peroneal nerve (common fibular nerve) wrapped in a common CT sheath.
  210. Where does the sciatic nerve exit?
    • The pelvis b passing though the greater sciatic notch (foramen) inferior to piriformis. It passes deep to gluteus maximus midway between the ischial tuberosity and the greater trochanter.
    • It typically divides into the tibial and common Peroneal nerves at mid-thigh.
  211. The thoracic spinal nerves(intercostals nerves) ____ do not form a plexus.
    • T2-T11
    • Distributed directly to the structures in that area = intercostals muscles + abdominal muscle
  212. Innervations of synovial joints =
    Nerves that innervate a skeletal muscle acting on a joint will also innervate the joint itself and the skin over that joint
  213. Dermatomes
    The skin over the entire body is innervated by cutaneous branches of the spinal the area of skin supplied b the cutaneous branches of a single spinal nerve = dermatome. Overlap of dermatomes can be considerable
  214. Autonomic nervous system controls?
    Visceral unction
  215. Visceral effectors of the ANS include/
    Cardiac muscle. Smooth muscle. Glands
  216. General visceral efferent fivers (GVE) =
    Autonomic nerve fibers
  217. The ANS is activated by centers in the brain which include?
    • Cerebral cortex and limbic (subconscious level)
    • Hypothalamus (main integration center of ANS ) � the boss
    • Brain stem and spinal cord (specific visceral reflexes)
  218. The divisions of the ANS
    • Sympathetic nervous system
    • Parasympathetic nervous system
  219. Sympathetic nervous system originated from the?
    • Thoracic and upper lumbar spinal cord
    • Thoracolumbar division
  220. Parasympathetic nervous system originated from the
    • Brainstem, nuclei of CN 3, 7, 9, 10.
    • Craniosacral division
  221. Most organs (visceral effectors) have a dual innervations
    • Innervated by both divisions
    • Divisions have antagonistic effects
  222. Sympathetic effect
    Increased rate of contraction and strength of contraction
  223. Parasympathetic effect
    Decreased rate and strength of contraction
  224. Structures of the ANS �two neuron hookup�
    • Perganglionic neuron (GVE) - myelinated
    • Post ganglion neuron (GVE) � unmyelinated
  225. Typical ANS structure
    Preganglionic neuron starts in CNS � goes to autonomic ganglion � meets with a post ganglionic neuron which then goes to the visceral effecter
  226. Location of ganglia and length of postganglionic fibers � parasympathetic division
    Parasympathetic ganglion has a terminal ganglion and is located more peripherally in the body (except he first four in the head)
  227. Peripheral ganglia; intramural ganglia located ?
    Near or within the walls of the visceral effectors
  228. Parasympathetic division has short ?
    Post ganglionic fibers except in the head
  229. Location of ganglia and length of postganglionic fibers � sympathetic division - Sympathetic division has two types of ganglia
    • Sympathetic chain ganglia
    • Collateral ganglia
  230. Sympathetic chain ganglia
    • Paravertebral ganglia; vertebral chain ganglia; lateral ganglia
    • Vertical row of ganglia on either side of the vertebral ganglia
  231. Collateral ganglia
    • Pervertabral ganglia
    • Lies anterior to the vertebral column
    • Close o large abdominal arteries
  232. Sympathetic decision is located?
    Some distance away from the visceral effectors
  233. What kind of fibers do the sympathetic division have?
    Long postganglionic fibers
  234. Preganglionic sympathetic neuron - cell body is located in the ?
    Lateral gray horn of the thoracic and lumbar segments
  235. Preganglionic sympathetic neuron - myelinated fivers passes thought the?
    Ventral root into the trunk of the spinal nerve
  236. Preganglionic sympathetic neuron - exits?
    The spinal nerve trunk via the white ramus communicans
  237. Preganglionic sympathetic neuron - enters the ?
    Nearest sympathetic chain ganglion on the same side
  238. Within the sympathetic trunk, there are three routes possible
    • � Preganglionic neuron can immediately synapse with the post ganglionic neuron in the sympathetic chain ganglion
    • o Post ganglionic neuron exits the sympathetic trunk via gay ramus communicans at entry level
    • � Preganglionic neuron ascends or descends thought the sympathetic trunk
    • o Synapse in a sympathetic chain ganglion at a level from entry point
    • o Post ganglionic neuron exits the sympathetic trunk via gray ramus communicans (at a level other then entry point0
    • � Preganglionic neuron passes thought the sympathetic trunk WITHOUT synapsing in a sympathetic chain ganglion
    • o Synapse with a postganglionic sympathetic neuron in a collateral ganglion
    • o Splanchnic nerves are the preganglionic sympathetic fibers the extend beyond the sympathetic trunk
    • Postganglionic neuron � originated in the?
    • Sympathetic ganglion (either chain or collateral)
  239. Postganglionic neuron � has what kind of fibers ?
    • Unmyelinated fibers that travel to their visceral effectors
    • Gray ramus communicans
    • Connects he sympathetic chain ganglion of the sympathetic trunk with the ventral ramus of the spinal cord
  240. Sympathetic trunk =
    • Paired chains of ganglia; anterolateral to the vertebral column
    • Consists of a serious of sympathetic chain ganglion that are segmented arranged
  241. Cervical region has?
  242. Thoracic region has?
  243. Lumbar region has?
  244. Sacral region has?
  245. Coccygeal region has?
  246. How many total ?
  247. Sympathetic trunk receives preganglionic sympathetic fibers from?
    Thoracic and lumbar regions of spinal cord
  248. Preganglionic parasympathetic neuron cell body is located in?
    • Nuclei of cranial nerves
    • Brain stem
    • Lateral gray horns of sacral spinal cord segments
  249. Which cranial nerves is the ell body located in?
    • Oculomotor nerve CN3
    • Facial nerveCN7
    • Glossopharyngeal nerveCN9
    • Vagus nerve CN10
  250. Occulomotor nerve CN 3 is located?
    • Midbrain
    • Smooth muscle in eyes; pupils contact and lens bulges
  251. Facial nerve CN7 is located?
    • Pons
    • Nasal glands, lacrimal glands, submandibular glands, and sublingual gland
  252. Glossopharyngeal nerve CN 9
    • Medulla oblongata
    • Parotid gland
  253. Vagus nerve CN 10
    • Medulla oblongata
    • Most parasympathetic fibers
    • Structure in the neck and almost every organ in the thoracic and abdominal cavities;
    • Eg. Heart, lungs, bronchi, esophagus stomach, small intestine, proximal large intestine�
  254. Nuclei of cranial nerves located in brain stem =
    • Midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata � location of CN origin
    • Midbrain = CN3
    • Pons = CN 7
    • Medulla oblongata = CN 9 & 10
  255. Nuclei of cranial nerves located in � lateral gray horns of sacral spinal cord segments
    Rest of large intestine, urinary bladder, ureters, and reproductive organs
  256. Myelinated fibers usually pass uninterrupted to the visceral effecter � synapse in the
    Terminal ganglion
  257. Postganglionic parasympathetic neuron � originated in the
    • Terminal ganglion
    • Usually short, unmyelinated fibers passes directly to the visceral effecter
  258. Acetylcholine - what autonomic fivers are cholinergic fibers?
    • � All preganglionic fibers release ACh
    • o Both parasympathetic and sympathetic
    • � All parasympathetic postganglionic fibers release ACh
    • � Very few sympathetic postganglionic fibers release ACh
    • o Sweat glands (Eccrine)
    • o Blood vessels to skeletal muscles (smooth muscles in the wall of BV)
    • Characteristics of ACh
    • � Release from cholinergic fibers
    • � Inactivated by acetylchoinesterase (A chase)
    • o Enzyme in synaptic cleft and post synaptic membrane
    • � Short lived, local effects
  259. Characteristics of ACh � can activated two different types of receptors
    • Muscarinic receptor � muscarine
    • Nicotinic receptor � nicotine
  260. Muscarinic receptor � muscarine
    • All effectors stimulated by parasympathetic postganglionic fibers and by cholinergic sympathetic post ganglionic fibers
    • Inhibitory or excitatory effects � depends on subclass of receptor
  261. Nicotinic receptor � nicotine
    • Excitatory effect
    • All ganglionic neurons (both divide, synapse between preganglionic and post ganglionic neurons)
    • Chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla
    • Skeletal muscle cells at neuromuscular junction (somatic NS , not ANS)
  262. Norepinephrine � what autonomic fibers are adrenergic fibers?
    Most sympathetic postganglionic fibers release NE
  263. Characterists of NE
    • � Released from adrenergic fibers
    • � Slow degeneration of NE
    • o Can enter blood stream
    • o More prolonged and also more widespread effects then ACh
    • Removal of NE follows two patterns
    • 1. Reuptake into the adrenergic nerve endings � most (50-89%)
    • a. Active transport
    • 2. Inactivated by enzymes
    • a. Caecholamine-o-methyltransferase (COMT)
    • b. Monoamine oxidase (MAO)
    • NE can activate two main types of receptors
    • Alpha and beta receptors
    • 1. A1, A2, B1, B2, B3 � subtypes based on their responses and by binding with specific drugs
    • 2. General result of receptor activation
    • a. Excitatory effects if activated = a1, b1.
    • b. Inhibitory effects if activate = a2, b2
    • c. B3 only on brown adiposities - stimulates thermogenesis
  264. Most effectors contain either alpha or beta receptors but some effectors have both types of receptors. If they have both then the majority of incoming impulses determines the response
  265. Norepinephrine activates alpha receptors more strongly then beta receptors. Epinephrine acts on beta receptors as well as it does alpha receptors
  266. Cranial bones =
    • 1. Frontal
    • 2. Parietals
    • 3. Temporal
    • 4. Occipital
    • 5. Sphenoid
    • 6. Ethmoid
  267. Meninges include:
    • Dura mater
    • Arachnoid mater
    • Pia mater
  268. � Skin CT layer
    • � Galea aponeurotica (Loose CT)
    • � Periosteum
    • � Periosteal layer
    • � Dura mater
    • � Arachnoid mater
    • � Subarachnoid space = CSF here
    • � Meningeal layer and arachnoid villi
    • � Pia mater
    • Extensions of the cranial dura:
    • Faulx cerebri
    • Tentorium cerebelli
    • Faulx cerebelli
  269. 2 sinuses =
    • Dural venous sinus (superior Sagittal sinus)
    • Dural venous sinus (straight sinus)
  270. Medulla oblongata � location
    Inferior portion of the brain superior to the foramen magnum continuous inferiorly with the spinal cord
  271. Medulla oblongata � associated structures - ascending and descending tracts between spinal cord and various brain areas
    Permits communication between spinal cord and various brain regions
  272. Medulla oblongata � associated structures - Cardiac center
    Hear rate and force of contraction
  273. Medulla oblongata � associated structures - medullary rhythmicity center
    Breathing rhythm
  274. Medulla oblongata � associated structures - vasomotor center
    Diameter of blood vessels (change BP)
  275. Medulla oblongata � associated structures - nonvital centers
    • Swallowing
    • Vomiting
    • Coughing
    • Sneezing
    • Hiccupping
  276. Medulla oblongata � associated structures - vestibular nuclear complex
    Equilibrium/maintenance of posture
  277. Medulla oblongata � associated structures -Nuclei of origin of CN 9-11
    • 1. Glossopharynglear nerve 9
    • 2. Vagus nerve 10
    • 3. Accessory nerve 11
    • 4. Hypoglossal nerve 12
  278. Medulla oblongata � associated structures - vertibulochoclear nerve
    CN 8
  279. Medulla oblongata � associated structures - which ventricle?
  280. Pons �bridge� � location
    • Bulge on anterior surface of the brain stem
    • Pons �bridge� � Associated structures � many white fibers connecting other parts of the brain
    • Pathway between spinal cored and higher brain areas
    • Other connect ponds ? cerebellium
  281. Pons �bridge� � Associated structures � pnumotaxic area
    • Breathing
    • Limit inspiration; facilitates expiration
  282. Pons �bridge� � Associated structures � apneustic area
    • Breathing
    • Prolong inspiration
    • Limits expiration
  283. Pons �bridge� � Associated structures � Locations of origin for CN 5-7
    • 1. Trigeminal nerve 5
    • 2. Abductens nerve 6
    • 3. Facial nerve 7
    • Pons �bridge� � Associated structures � Vestiulococlear nerve 8
    • Pons �bridge� � Associated structures �4th ventricle
  284. Midbrain - location
    • Wedge shaped portion of brain stem
    • Between pons and diencephalon
  285. Midbrain - Associated structures � cerebral peduncles
    • Connects tracts of upper parts of the brain with lower parts of the brain and spinal cord
    • E.g. larger motor tracts descending to the spinal cord
  286. Midbrain - Associated structures � corpora quadrigemina
    • � Reflex center for movement of the eyeball and head to visual stimuli
    • � Reflex center for movements of the head and trunk in response to auditory stimuli
  287. Midbrain - Associated structures � Nuclei of origin for CN 3-4
    • 1. Oculomotor nerve 3
    • 2. Trochlear nerve
    • Midbrain - Associated structures � cerebral aqueduct
  288. Diencephalon � thalamus � location
    • Above the midbrain
    • Embedded in the cerebral hemisphere
    • Lateral walls of the third ventricle
    • 2 oval masses joined by the intermediate mass
  289. Diencephalon � thalamus � associated structures - Relay station for all sensory impulses except smell
    Hearing, vision, taste and general sensations
  290. Diencephalon � thalamus � associated structures - somatic motor system centers (many nuclei)
    • Voluntary motor actions
    • Diencephalon � thalamus � associated structures - third ventricle
    • Diencephalon � thalamus � associated structures - nucleus associated with memory and certain emotions
  291. Diencephalon � hypothalamus � location
    • Floor and part of the lateral walls of the third ventricle
    • Below the thalamus
    • Partially protected by the sells turcica
  292. Diencephalon � hypothalamus � associated structures � control of endocrine function
    • 1. Paraventricular nucleus and suporaoptic nucleus
    • a. Hormone synthesis
    • i. Oxytosin (PVN); antidiuretic hormone (SDN)
    • 2. Releasing and inhibiting hormones
  293. Diencephalon � hypothalamus � associated structures � variety of regulating centers
    • 1. Feeding center
    • 2. Satiety center
    • 3. Thirst center
    • 4. Thermoregulatory center
    • 5. Pace maker of body rhythms
  294. Diencephalon � hypothalamus � associated structures � main regulator of visceral activities
    • Controls and integrate the ans
    • � Motor : smooth muscle, cardiac muscles. Glands
    • � Sensory: from viscera
    • Diencephalon � hypothalamus � associated structures � maintains sleep patterns
  295. Diencephalon � hypothalamus � associated structures � associated with feeling of rage and aggression
    • Center for emotional responses
    • At heard of limbic system
    • Acts thought the ANS to start the physical expression of emotions
    • Diencephalon � hypothalamus � associated structures � third ventricle
  296. Cerebellum � location
    • Posterior to MO and pons
    • Inferior to occipital lobe of cerebrum
    • Separated from cerebrum by transverse fissure and tentorium cerebella
  297. Cerebellum � structure � two lateral cerebellar hemispheres
    • � Connected in the midline by the vermis
    • � Each hemisphere has smaller units called lobes
    • o Anterior lobe & posterior lobe = subconscious movements of skeletal muscles
    • o Flocculonodular lobe � sense of equilibrium
  298. Cerebellum � structure � falx cerebella is between the two hemispheres
    Extension of the cranial dura mater
  299. Cerebellum � structure � organization of white and gray mater
    • � Cortex � superficial layer of gray matter thought into olds called folia
    • o thick parallel ridges of gray mater
    • � White matter tracts � arbor vitae
    • o Deep to cerebella cortex
    • � Cerebella nuclei � masses of gray mater deep within the arbor vitae
  300. Cerebellum � Associated structures � cerebellar peduncles
    • Fiber tracts permit communication between cerebellum and brain stem
    • Cerebellum � Associated structures � fourth ventricle
  301. Cerebellum � Associated structures � general functions
    • Subconscious movements of skeletal muscles
    • � Coordinates activity
    • � Integrate movements
    • � Coordinates reflexes that maintain posture and balance
  302. Cerebrum � location
    • Supported on the brain stem
    • Surrounds the diencephalon
  303. Cerebrum � Structure � organization
    • � Cortex � superficial layer of gray matter
    • � Cerebral white matter � fiber tracts
    • � Cerebral nuclei or basal ganglia
    • o Paired masses of gray matter
    • o Deep w/I cerebral white matter
  304. Cerebrum � Structure � surface is not smooth
    • � Gyri � upfolds of he tissue
    • � Fissures � deep downfolds into the tissue
    • � Sulci � shallow downfolds into the tissue
  305. Cerebrum � Structure � two cerebral hemispheres � divided by the longitudinal fissure
    • Falx cerebri � extension of the cranial dura mater
    • Occupies the longitude fissure
  306. Cerebrum � Structure � two cerebral hemispheres �hemispheres are connected by the corpus callosum
    Bundles of transverse white fibers
  307. Cerebrum � Structure � two cerebral hemispheres � hemispheres is subdivided into lobes
    • � Central Sulcus
    • o Frontal lobe
    • o Parietal lobe
    • � Lateral Sulcus
    • o Frontal lobe, parietal lobe
    • o Temporal lobe
    • � Patietooccipital Sulcus
    • o Parietal lobe
    • o Occipital lobe
  308. Cerebrum � Structure � two cerebral hemispheres � other important structures
    • 1. Insula
    • a. Another lobe of cerebrum
    • b. Deep within the cerebrum; under the parietal, frontal and temporal loves
    • 2. Precental gyrus
    • a. Immediately anterior to the central Sulcus
    • b. Primary motor cortex
    • 3. Postcentral gyrus
    • a. Immediately posterior to the central Sulcus
    • b. Primary somatosensory cortex
    • 4. Cerebral ganglia or basal ganglia (basal nuclei)
    • a. Deep within the substance of the cerebrum
    • b. Paired masses of gray matter in each hemisphere
    • i. Interconnect with each other and connect with the cortex, thalamus, and hypothalamus
    • ii. Various nuclei
    • 1. General function to control subconscious movements of skeletal muscles and muscle tone
    • 5. Transverse fissure
    • a. Separates cerebrum from the cerebellum
    • b. Tentori cerebella
    • i. Occupies the transverse fissure
    • 6. Lateral ventricles
  309. Cerebrum � Structure � associated structure and functions - cranial nerves 1 & 2
    • 1. Olfactory nerve CN1
    • 2. Optic Nerve CN2
  310. Cerebrum � Structure � associated structure and functions - Limbic system
    • Group of structures that are located on the medial aspect of each cerebral hemisphere and diencephalon
    • Central roles in basic survival behaviors
    • Involved in the emotion interpretation of sensory input and the expression of emotion
  311. Cerebrum � Structure � associated structure and functions - many function areas of the brain
    • Major sensory, motor, and association areas/cortex
    • 1. Association areas � emotion and intellectual processes
  312. Ventricles
    Cavities in the bain that communicated with other ventricles, central canal and subarachnoid space.
  313. Lateral ventricles
    Within each cerebral hemisphere
  314. Interbentricular foramen
    Foramen of monro
  315. Third ventricle
    In the diencephalon
  316. Fourth ventricle
    Boarded by the pons and MO Anteriorly and by the cerebellum posteriorly
  317. Cerebral aqueduct � of sylvius
    Passes thought the mid brain
  318. Median aperture of magedie
    To the sub arachnoid space and central canal
  319. Lateral aperture of luschka
    To the sub arachonid space
  320. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
    • 1. Circulates thought the subarachnoid space around the brain and spinal cord; also circulates through the ventricles of the brain and central canal of spinal cord
    • 2. Clear, colorless liquid
    • a. Proteins, glucose, urea, salts, water and some lymphocytes
    • 3. Functions:
    • a. Protects and supports CNS
    • b. Removes neuronal wastes
    • c. Helps spread neuroactive substances
    • d. Maintains a constant environment
    • 4. Formed primarily by filtration and secretion
    • a. Involves the choroid plexus
    • i. In the ventricles
    • ii. Association of a capillary and ependyma
    • 5. Re-absorption of fluid
    • a. By arachonid villi
    • Rate of re-absorption = rate of formation
    • Hydrocephalus if blocked drainage
    • 6. Circulation of CSF
    • Right lateral ventricle choroid plexus + left lateral ventricle choroid plexus
    • Interventricular foramen
    • Third ventricle choroid plexus
    • Cerebral aqueduct
    • 4th ventricle choroid plexus ( to lateral aperture to subarachnoid space also)
    • Median apeture
    • Central canal and subarachnoid space
    • Arachnoid villi
    • Dural venous sinuses
    • There is a continuous circulation of CSF in and around the CNS
  321. Circle of Willis =
    Interconnecting network of arteries that form a circle around the infunfibulum
  322. What does the circle of Willis do?
    • Prevents an interrupted blood flow
    • Most intracranial aneurisms occur in or near the circle of Willis
    • Strokes of cerebrobasulor accident (CVA)
    • Sudden hemorrhage into the brain
    • Sudden stoppage of blood to part o the brain
    • Infarction = death of nervous tissue
  323. Olfactory nerve (CN1)
    • � Sensory nerve
    • � Olfactory mucosa to the cerebrum
    • � Smell
    • � Olfactory foramina on cribriform plate (ethmoid)
  324. Optic nerve (CN2)
    • � Sensory nerve
    • � Retina to the cerebrum
    • � Vision
    • � Optic foramen (sphenoid)
  325. Occuomotor nerve (CN3)
    • � Motor nerve (primarily motor nerve)
    • � Carries parasympathetic fibers
    • � Midbrain to orbit
    • � Certain eye muscles and other parts of the eye
    • o Movement of the eyelid, and eyeball, accommodation of the lenses, constricts pupil (ANS) (and some sensory fibers from the muscles it innervates)
    • � Superior orbital fissure (sphenoid)
  326. Trochlear nerve (CN4)
    • � Motor nerve (primarily motor nerve)
    • � Midbrain to orbit
    • � Movement of eyeball (and some sensory fibers from the muscles it innervates)
    • � Superior orbital fissure (sphenoid)
  327. Trigeminal nerve (CN5)
    • � Mixed nerves (sensory and motor)
    • � Ponds ??orbit, maxillary and Mandibular regions
    • � Muscles of mastication, cutaneous interaction of the face�
    • � Superior orbital fissure and foramina of the greater wing (sphenoid)
  328. Abducens nerve (CN6)
    • � Motor nerve (primarily motor nerve)
    • � Pons to orbit
    • � Movement of eyeball (and some sensory fibers from the muscles it innervates)
    • � Superior orbital fissure (sphenoid)
  329. Facial nerve (CN7)
    • � Mixed nerves
    • � Carries parasympathetic fibers
    • � Pons and cerebral cortex ? ?facial muscles, taste buds, various glands
    • � Muscles of facial expression, secretion of tears, secretion of saliva (ANS), taster from anterior 2/3of tongue�.
    • � Internal auditory meatus and stylomastoid foramen (temporal)
  330. Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN 8)
    • � Sensory nerve (primarily sensory nerve; some motor fibers to cochlea)
    • � Parts of inner ear to the brain stem
    • � Hearing and balance; motor fibers help �fine-tune� the sensitivity of receptors in the cochlea
    • � Internal auditory meatus (temporal)
  331. Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN9)
    • � Mixed nerve
    • � Carrie parasympathetic fibers
    • � Medulla oblongata ? ? pharynx, parotid gland, tongue
    • � Swallowing, salivary secretion (ANS), taste from posterior 1/3 of tongue (also involved in the regulation of respirator rate and BP)
    • � Jugular foramen (temporal)
  332. VAgus nerve (CN 10)
    • � Mixed nerve
    • � Carries parasympathetic fibers
    • � Medulla oblongata ? ?many organs/structures in the thorax and abdomen!
    • o Lungs, heart, esophagus, large intestine, gallbladder, gastrointestinal tract organs, muscles of the pharynx�
    • � Swallowing, visceral muscles movements (ANS), sensations from organs supplied�
    • � Jugular foramen (temporal bone)
  333. Accessory nerve (CN11)
    • � Motor nerve (primarily motor nerve)
    • � Medulla oblongata, cervical spinal cord to muscle of the neck, pharynx, larynx and soft palate
    • � Swallowing, head movements, (proproception from muscle it innervates)
    • � Jugular foramen (temporal)
  334. Hypoglossal nerve (CN 12)
    • �Motor nerve (primarily motor nerve)
    • �Medulla oblongata to tongue
    • �Movement of the tongue during speech and swallowing (proproception from muscle it innervates)
Card Set
final exam.txt
bio 168 final exam