Immune and Lymphatic Sys.

  1. function of lymphatic system
    collects excess intersitital fluid

    and return it to the blood
  2. takes the excess fluid through....
    lymph nodes
  3. what can the lymph nodes do?
    prepared to elicit an immune response if necessary
  4. lymphatic system does what with low soluble fats
    reroutes them around small capillaries of the intestine

    takes them into large veins of the neck
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  6. Is the lymphatic system an open or closed system? And why?

    fluid enteres at one end and leaves at the other
  7. how does material (fluid or particles) enter into lymphatic vessel?
    interstitial fluid flows between overlaping endothelial cells

    large particles push their way through
  8. lymp vessel designed so that...
    once inside the lymph, they cannot push their way out
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  10. once inside lymph, what is the gauge pressure
    slightly negative
  11. as interstitial pressure rises toward zero, does lymph flow increase or decrease?
    flow increases - in one direction
  12. Once inside, how is the fluid propelled throughout he valves of lymph?
    2 ways:

    • 1-smooth muscle in the larger lymph vessels contract
    • 2-lymph vessels may be squeezed by adjacent skeletal muscles
  13. lymph flow and skeletal muscles
    lymph flow of an active individual is considerably greater than in an individual at rest
  14. where does lymph system empty fluid?
    large veins in the thoracic duct
  15. BLOOD
  16. what kind of tissue is blood
    connective tissue
  17. blood functions
    regulates extracellular env. (transporting nutrients, waste products, hormones, heat)

    protects the body from injury and foreign invaders
  18. centrifuge of blood gives....
    plasma (water, ions, urea, ammonia, proteins)

    white blood cells

    red blood cells
  19. RBC and WBC (other names)
    RBC = erythrocytes

    WBC = leukocytes
  20. what are the proteins in the blood?

  21. albumin functions
    transports fatty acids and steroids

    regulates osmotic pressure in blood
  22. immunoglobulin function
  23. red blood cells (erythrocytes) function
    • transport O2 and CO2
    • like bags of hemoglobin
  24. do erythrocytes have organelles? Do they reproduce?

    cannot undergo mitosis
  25. as erythrocytes pass through plasma membranes what happens to them? what happens next?
    they get worn out

    spleen destroys old, worn RBC
  26. leukocyte function
    protect body from foreign invaders
  27. do leukocytes have hemoglobin? organelles?
    no hemoglobin

    yes organelles
  28. what are stem cells?
    all blood cells come from the same type or precursor: stem cells
  29. where do stem cells reside?
    bone marrow
  30. If RBC and WBC have a common precursor, how do erythrocytes lost their organelles?
    lose their nucleus while still in the marrow

    lose organelles when they enter the blood stream
  31. luekocyte formation is more complex, why?
    there are different kinds
  32. Immune System: what are the two kinds of immunity?
    innate immunity

    acquired immunity
  33. innate v. acquired immunity
    innate = generalized protection

    acquired = protection against specific organisms or toxins
  34. innate immunity fighters
    • skin = barrier
    • stomach = low pH and digestive enzymes
    • phagocytotic cells
    • chemicals in the blood
  35. Innate immunity: what is inflammation
    injury to tissue
  36. what goes on physiologically during inflammation?
    dilation of blood vessels

    increased permeability of capillaries

    swelling of tissue cells
  37. reason for inflammation
    "block" of effected tissue from rest of the body in order to prevent spreading of infection
  38. what do swollen glands indicate?
    swollen lymph nodes with immune cells are ready to fight invasion
  39. acquired immunity - divided further into...

    cell mediated
  40. humoral is what kind of immunity? (what cell)
    B-cell immunity
  41. B lymphocytes mature where?
    bone marrow and liver
  42. what do b lymphocytes produce?
  43. what do antibodies do?
    stimulate immune response if it recognizes a foreign particle (antigen)
  44. what happens when antibody meets antigen?
    begin a cascade of runs involving blood proteins
  45. what do helper T cells do?
    help lymphocyte to differentiate into plasma cells and memory B cells
  46. what do plasma cells do?
    synthesize free antibodies and release them into the blood stream
  47. where are plasma cells derived from?
    stem cells in the bone marrow
  48. what do memory B cells do?
    stay in the body, prepare for reinfection

    second infection = trigger a secondary response
  49. humoral immunity is effective against:
    bacteria, fungi, parasitic protozoans, viruses and blood toxins
  50. cell mediated immunity: what kind of immunity? what cell
  51. do T-lymphocytes make antibodies?
    no, instead they test agains self-antigens
  52. what are self-antigens?
    expressed in normal cells of the body
  53. what happens if a T cell binds to a self-antigen?
    it is destroyed
  54. if T cell is not destroyed?
    • differentiates into: helper T cells
    • memory T cells
    • suppressor T cells
    • killer T cells
  55. helper T cells
    assist in activating B lymphocytes and killer & suppressor T cells
  56. memory T cells
    similar to memory B cells
  57. suppressor T cells
    negative feedback in immune system
  58. killer T cells
    bind to the antigen-carrying cell and release a protein which punctures the cell

    [responsible for fighting off some forms of cancer, and attacking transplanted tissue]
  59. cell mediated immunity is effective against
    infected cell
  60. summary of bacterial infection

    macrophages, then neutrophils engulf bacteria

    interstitial fluid is flushed into lymphatic system
  61. once in lymphatic system.....
    macrophages proces and present bacterial antigens to B lymphocytes

    • T helper cells help B lymphocytes differentiate
    • memory cells prepare for reinfection

    produce antibodies released into blood stream to attack bacteria
  62. Blood types
    blood type has corresponding antigen
  63. specific types and antigens
    • Type A = A antigens
    • Type B = B antigens
    • Type AB = A and B antigens
    • Type O = no antigens
  64. if RBC has an antigen does immune system make antibodies against that antigen?

    immune sys. makes antibodies for all other antigens
  65. universal donor and acceptor?
    universal donor = O

    universal acceptor = AB
  66. genotypes:
    • A: IAIA or IAi
    • B: IBIB or IBi

    • AB: IAIB
    • O: ii
  67. What does Rh negative mean?
    genotype codes for nonfunction products of the Rh gene
  68. concern if....
    Rh- mother has a fetus that is Rh+ and she makes antibodies for +

    next pregnancy....fetus is Rh+ then fetus is attacked by mother's antibodies
Card Set
Immune and Lymphatic Sys.
Lymphatic Sys., Immune System and Blood