Principles of Cancer Chemotherapy

  1. Carcinoma
    Derived from epithelial cells, those cells that line the type of our skin and organs.
  2. Sarcoma
    Derived from muscle, bone, cartilage, fat or connective tissues
  3. Leukemia
    Derived from white blood cells or their precursors
  4. Lymphoma
    A cancer of bone marrow derived cells that affects the lymphatic system
  5. Myelomas
    A cancer involving the white blood cells responsible for the production of antibiodies (B lymphocytes or B-cells)
  6. Aromatic amines
    bladder cancer
  7. Aflatoxin
  8. Asbestos
    lung, mesothelioma
  9. Benzene
  10. Vinyl chloride
    liver angiosarcoma
  11. EBV
    Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal cancer
  12. HIV
    Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma
  13. HTLV1
    Cutaneous T-lymphoma
  14. HPV
    Cervical cancer
  15. Initiation
    Exposure --> damage --> growth alterations and mutations
  16. Promotion
    Reversible changes favors growth of mutated cells
  17. Transformation
    Cells become cancerous
  18. Progression
    Additional genetic changes increase cancer proliferation
  19. Oncogenes
    • Defective genes involved in triggering cancer cell growth
    • HER-2
  20. Tumor-suppressor genes
    • Normal genes responsible for control of cell division.
    • p53
  21. HER-2
    • Encodes for the human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2
    • It is involved in cellular responses to growth factors.
  22. p53
    Encodes for transcirption factor that regulates cell division, by triggering cell death (apoptosis) upon cellular injury.
  23. Stages 0 and I
    small localized cancer that are curable
  24. Stages II and III
    Locally advanced and/or involvement of local lymph nodes
  25. Stage IV
    Inoperable or metastatic cancer.
  26. GX
    grade cannot be assessed
  27. G1
    well differentiated
  28. G2
    moderately differentiated
  29. G3
    poorly differentiated
  30. G4
    undifferentiated (most aggressive and fast growing)
  31. Neoadjuvant therapy
    aims to shrink tumor and increase efficacy of primary therapy (reduce tumor cell burden)
  32. Primary treatment
    • surgery
    • radiation
    • chemotherapy
    • biologic therapy
  33. surgery
    resection of solid localized tumors
  34. Radiation
    for curing localized tumors
  35. Chemotherapy
    systemic TTT against primary tumor and metastasis
  36. Biologic therapy
    Systemic TTT acts by stimulating host immune system
  37. Adjuvant therapy
    to eliminate all residual disease
  38. curative
    aims to at least reduce tumor burden below 10^3 cells
  39. Palliative
    • when complete eradication is unlikely
    • aims to control symptoms, prolong survival time and increase QOL
  40. Cell life: G1
    • Postmitotic phase
    • manufacture of enzymes for DNA synthesis
  41. Cell life: G0
    • Resting cells (not preparing division)
    • serve as reserve for repopulation of tissue
    • Generally not susceptible to chemo, esp. in slow growing tumors.
  42. Cell life: S phase
    DNA synthesis and replication
  43. Cell life: G2
    • premitotic phase
    • making specialized proteins and RNA
  44. Cell life: M
    • mitosis
    • actual cell division
  45. DLT
    toxicity to normal tissue that limits further dose escalation
  46. MTD
    Dose just below the DLT
  47. Nadir
    period of lowest blood cell counts, after chemotherapy TTT
Card Set
Principles of Cancer Chemotherapy
Principles of Cancer Chemotherapy