Bio 112

  1. Over the course of their evolutionary histories, the timing of flowering, the spacing of pants, and the nectar rewards of flowering plants have influenced the foraging behavior of bees, which in turn has influenced the morphology of flowers. this process is an example of:
  2. Predation is similar to _________ in that both types of relationship benefit on of the interacting species while harming the other.
  3. An ecological niche:
    Cannot be shared by two species
  4. Earthworms live in many grass and forest ecosystems, and they aerate the soil as they burrow. They also may mix soil layers as they ingest organis matter an travel between layers. These traits, taken collectively, make up the ______ of the earthworm
  5. If you find a brightly colored insect resting on a dead leaf, the insect is likely to be:
    Poisonous or distasteful
  6. An effective, bright, and very distinct color patern that a prey species can display suddenly to scare a predator is called:
    Startle Coloration
  7. A predatore might use__________ to enable it to cathc its prey.
  8. Many plants are mycorrhizal: Their roots are infected with a specialized fungus. The plants supplies carbon to the fungus, and the fungus supplies utients o the plant. The realationship between these plants and the mycorrhizal fungi is an example of a ________ association.
  9. A species that plays a major role in determining the structure of its ecological community is
    A keystone species
  10. Succession that begins on bare rock after glaciers have passed, or on newly formed volcanic islands, is
  11. The first community that forms on bare rock often has organisms such as
    Lichens and mosses
  12. After a forested are such as a national forest is clear cut, what type of succession occurs
  13. The next time you need to mow the grass, you can excuse yourself, saying that by mowing you are helping to maintain a man made
    Subclimax community
  14. The majority of the energy on Earth originates from
    the sun
  15. How much of the energy that reaches earths outer atmosphere from the sun is available for phtosynthesis in pants at earths surface
  16. If a bird eats an insect that ate a plant, the bird is considered a
    Primary consumer
  17. The photo synthetic bacteria that form the basis of the food chain in Great Salt Lake are classified as
    Primary producers
  18. The _______ are an important and often overlooked group of organisms that release nutrients to the soil of water
  19. The amount of energy captured by plants made available to consumers in an ecosystem is called
    Net primary prductivity
  20. In open-water marinse exosystems, the _____ occupy the same trophic level as the giant sequoias (redwoods) in the forests of California
    Microscopic, single-celled algae (protist) called phtoplankton ("plant-like drifters")
  21. Which trophic level has the least bioaccumulation
    Tertiary consumers
  22. In an attempt to become more enviromentally consious, a women changes her life. Growns own food, no pesticides or synthetic fertilizers, she walks rather than taking the car for trips. She is doing what?
    Decreasing her carbon footprint
  23. Which nutrient cycle lacks an atmospheric reservoir
    The phosphorus Cycle
  24. Oceans, the atmospher, and fossil fuels are large reservoirs of which nutrient cycle
    The carbon cycle
  25. A gametophyte is
  26. The first cell after fertilization is a
  27. What are the products of phtosynthesis
    Sugars and O2
  28. To control the movement of gases, land plants developed
  29. With respect to plant reproduction, there has been evolutionary trend toward
    sporophyte dominance
  30. Why do mosses and liverworts need to live in a moist enviroment
  31. Differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms
    Flowers or cones
  32. Bryophytes absorb water through
  33. which group of plants was the first to produce seeds
  34. which of the following are gymnosperms
    cycads, ginkgos, and conifers
  35. What group dominated the Carboniferous period and is now burned as coal
    Seedless vascular plants
  36. In angiosperms, the male gametophyte is
  37. Fungal cell walls are differet from plant cell walls because fungal walls contain
    chitin, while plant walls have cellulose
  38. The body of a fungus is generally composed of
  39. Fungi usually obtain food by
    Digesting it externally and then absorbing it
  40. The dominant generation in the Fungal life cycle is usually
  41. THe mat-like structure composed of hyphal threads that forms the body of fungi is called
  42. The Worldwide die-off of frogs has been traced to infection by
  43. Which group of fungi appears to lack sexual reproduction
  44. Black bread molds produce diploid reproductive structures called
  45. Mycorrihzae surround and infiltrate the _______ of vascular plants
  46. Which of the following is an example of a prasitic fungal disease
    Athlete's foot
  47. Peptidoglycan is found in the cell walls of
  48. The classification of becteria has historically been based on
    microbial nutrition, physical appearance, and how they move
  49. In which of these enviroments would you normally find prokaryotes
  50. Mobile porkaryotes can move around with the help of
  51. Bacterial endospores are used for
    Keeping the bacteria alive under harsh conditions
  52. Sex pili are prokaryotic structures that are used
    during conjugation
  53. Legumes obtain a useful form of ______ from bacteria that live in root nodules
  54. Through which process do bacteria recycle nutrients in the envrioment
  55. Disease-causing bacteria are called
  56. Which of the following is not alive
  57. Short, circular strands of RNA that can cause plant diseases are called
  58. Viruses that attack prokaryotes are called
  59. Which of the following groups is Eukaryotic
  60. ________ are phtosynthetic protists
  61. A flagellated protist lives inside the guts of termites and enables the termites to digest the cellulose in wood as a food source. This protist belongs to the
  62. Both Trichomonas and Giardia are parasitic protists in the group called
  63. Which group of protists includes phtosynthetic, unicellular, freshwater organisms that possess eyespots
  64. Which protist causes African sleeping sickness
  65. Which group is characterized by grtty, glassy, protective shells
  66. Paralytic shellfish poisoning occurs when ______ are eaten by humans or marine mammals.
  67. A pseudoplasmodium is an
    Group of cellular slime mold cells
  68. A protist is multicellular, it uses carbon dioxide from the air to carry out photosynthesis, and its chloroplasts closely resemble those of ferns and grasses. This organism is
    Green Alga
  69. A man is brought to hospital after hiking trip in northern Minnesota. Suffers nausea, vomiting, and severe stomach cramps. Sample shows a single-celled flagellate organism that lacks mitochondria but has two nuclei.
  70. Slime mold enviroment dries up. What would you expect to happen to the slime molds that live in the area
    The slime molds would shift from the plasmodium and form fruiting bodies
  71. Who proposed the geological theory of Catastrophism
  72. Which scientist devised the theory of uniformitarianism to account for earths old age
  73. Fossils include rocks and sediments that
    Bear the impressions or shapes of preserved organisms
  74. A change in the gentic makeup of a population is called
  75. of darwins most important discoveries were based on studies of birds and tortoises he observed in
    The Galapagos Islands
  76. The human appendix is an example of
    Vestigial structure
  77. Dolphins and sharks have stiff dorsal fins projecting from their backs that help them maneuver through water. These tructures are best described as
    Analogous structures
  78. Of all the possible amino acids, all living organisms make use of only the same 20 amino acids. This supports the idea that
    All living things are derived from a single common ancestor
  79. A population is defined as
    All individuals of the same species located in a given geographic region
  80. Evolution can be defined
    A change in the genetic makeup of a population over time
  81. A population carries two alleles for a trait in which T is dominant and t is recessive. In Hardy-Weinberg equation, q2 represents
    The proportion of homozygous recessive individuals
  82. Inbreeding is defined as
    Sexual reproduction among closely related individuals
  83. The process by which allele frequencies are altered in a population due to chance in called
    genetic drift
  84. Imagin a population of monkeys in Sout America whose habitat has been reduced to point where only 20 individuals survive. THis is an example of
    A population bottleneck
  85. Shrews have been documented to travel across frozen lakes and establish populations on previously uninhabited islands. This is an example of
    The founder effect
  86. Having greater evolutionary fitness means
    Having more offspring
  87. The elaborate courtship displays common among animals are the result of
    Sexual selections
  88. When a species lives in a constant enviroment for a long time, the "average type" of individual may have the best chance of furviving and producint the most offspring. What type of selection is occurring.
  89. Before the modern era of science, organisms were assined to species on the basis of
    Similarities in Appearance
  90. The biological species concept annot be applied to
    Extinc organisms
  91. One species of fish feeds in the muddly bottom of a lake. A second species eats insects that lond on the water surface. This is an example of what type of isolations
    Ecological isolations
  92. Two different species of pine release their pollen at different times. This is an example of what type of Isolations
  93. In may species of fireflies, males flash light from their abdomens to attract females. Each species ahs a different flashing pattern. This is an example of What type of Isolation
    Behavioral Isolation
  94. Horses and Donkeys can mate successfully to produce mules, which are always sterile. Which genetic isolating mechanism prevents horses and donkeys from becoming a single species.
    Hybrid infertility
  95. Two species of squirrels live on either side of the Grand Canyon. It is believed that a long time ago, before being separated by the canyon, they were the same species. What type of spceiation
    Allopatric Speciation
  96. The Parasitic Rhagoletis flies that show a preference for either hawthorn or apple trees and are no longer interbreeding populations illustrate what type of speciation
  97. A single species of finch from Southe America was diplaces to a new habitat in the Galapagos Islands and evolved rapidly into several new species as it exploited the new resources. What occured in these Darwins Finces
    Adaptive radiation
  98. The most common cause of extinction is
    Habitat Change
  99. Miller and Ureys experiments to simulate prebiotic evolution produced
    Mixture of organic molecules
  100. The outer boundaries of laboratory-created vesicles are most simlar to
    Cell membranes
  101. One theory holds that eh first-self replicating molecules were
  102. Correct series of events in the evolution of life on Earth
    Photosynthesis > O2 > Aerobic Metabolism
  103. The organsims originally responsible for putting oxygen in Earths atmosphere lived around
    2.3 billion years ago
  104. If the early Earths atmosphere contained little or no o2, then where did most of the o2 in our modern atmosphere come from
  105. The proposal that cerain eukaryotic cell structures may have evolved from a prokaryotic symbiosis is called
    endosymbiont hypothesis
  106. about 530 mya, what adaptation evolved to make fish the dominant predators of the sea
    Internal skeleton
  107. The earliest group of land plants whose reprodtuction did not require water for swimming sperm were the
  108. Which group of vertebrates was the first to evolve a waterproff egg, which allowed the group to move away from water, deeper onto dry land
  109. The generally slow and steady succession of species on Earth has been interrupted by
    Episodes of Mass extinction
  110. An adaptation that is closely associated with hominin evolution is
    Grasping hands
  111. What species of hominin created the cave paintings at Lascaux, France
    Homo Sapiens
  112. The species that paleoanthropologies belive may be the most direct ancestor to Homo Sapiens is
    Homo Heidelbergensis
  113. The science of reconstrucint evolutionary history is called
  114. which of the following groups contains the fewest species
  115. Systematics reassigns phylogentic placement based on
    New information about genetic relationships
Card Set
Bio 112
Biology 112 final exam