well developed shearing crests indicate what diatary pattern?
sharp crests on molars indicate what diatary pattern?
Lemur dental formula...
Cebid dental formula...
...marmoset dental formula...
New world monkey dental formula...
...Old World Anthropoid...
characteristics of ape dentition...5
- parallel molars and per-molars
- longer canine teeth
- sectorial premolar
- incisors implanted at angle (procumbant)
in apes and in humans, the upper molar and lower molars contain hoe many cusps?
...name of pattern?...
who had thicker enamel? a. hominins b. apes
two features of an ape jaw...
- two fused symmetrial halves
- simian shelf (internal reinforcing butteress)
human featre; result of shrunken jaw...
chin (mentel protuberance)
A muscle of chewing that arises on the side of the skull and inserts on the jaw.
Ridge of bone along the midline of the top of the skull that serves for the attachment of the temporalis muscle.
A muscle of chewing that arises on the zygomatic arch of the skull and inserts on the mandible.
for the gorilla, a large termporlis muscle and a small brain case lead to the development of a...
since the temporalis passes under the zygomatic arch, a large temporalis would lead to...
...large teeth and jaw would lead to...
- flairing zygomatics
- robust zygomatics
The comparative study of chromosomes/
The comparative study of molecules.
comparative molecular biology
three problems with comparative anatomy...
- envoronmental influence on the phenotype
number of chromosomes in Homo sapiens...
is number of chromosomes evidence of evolutionary relationship?
a composite karyotype of chimp and human shows...3
- similar giesma-banding
- homologous chromosomes
- homologous genes in the same positions in both species
which human chromosome has no chimp match?
...do chimps have any no-matcch chromosomes?
...what is the theoretical explaination?
- chromosome 2
- yes, two small ones
- the two fused since common ancestor
chimps, apes, and the common ancestot all have how many chromosomes?
when homologous protiens from divergent populations are compared, those with the most similarities (and the least amino acid substitutions) had the a. most recent b. most distant common ancestor?
we can reconstruct genetic code from protiens, because...
...and why dont all changes in genetic code result in amino acid substitution?
- amino acid sequences refer to base pairs
- because some amino acids have multiple codes.
- amino acid secuence show minimum number of changes only
a graphic representation of evolutionary relationships among species
The principle that the most accurate phylogenetic tree is one that is based on the fewest changes in the genetic code.
maximum parsimony principle
the concept that changes in the structure of a protein or a stretch of DNA change at a constant rate when averaged over a period of time.
"molecular clock" concept
on what does the calibration of the "molocular clock" depend?
what can be estimated by measuring the amount of difference between proteins (or DNA) with the calibrated "molecular clock"?
the time of divergence from the last common ancestor
The comparative study of the genomes of different organisms.
besides code, what other types of differences are found between genomes?
- epigenetic differences (timing and sequencing)
some genes responsible for these things are present in humans and absent in chimps...
- transmission of nerve signals
- brain size
- perception of smell
- sperm production
besides fossil record, how can timing of major evolutionary events be obtained?
by estimating the time it takes for changes in the genome to occur.
when is the estimated split between the human and chimpanzee lineages?
A model that gives an explanation of why primates form groups based on the hypothesis that a group of individuals can defend access to resources such as food and keep other animle and other groups away from those resources better than an individual can.
resource defense model
A model that gives an explanation of why primates form groups based on the hypothesis that a group of individuals can protect themselves better or even ward off attacks from predators better than in individual animal could.
a person who studies primates
primates that eat mostly fruit tend to live in what kind of social groups?...
...this is an example in support of which model?...
- larger groups
- resource-defense model
semi-terresetrial primates tend to live in what size groups?...
...this example supports what model?...
noctural primates tend to develop what kind of social group strategies?...2
- solitary animals
- small groups
for diurnal primates what it the advantage of living in large groups?
better chance of spotting a predator
in terms of competition, reproductive success of females depends on...
- access to food
- access to females
Primate social groups that are based on associations of females
female-bonded kin group
The area occupied by an animal or animal group.
A social group, found among small-bodied apes and other primates, consisting of a single mated pair and their young offspring.
describe the simple social grouping of many small nocturnal prosimmians and the orangutan...3
- mother and immature offspring
- home range overlaps with other groups
- little contact with males
three monogomous primate groups...
- lemuriformes (Prosimii)
- New World monkeys (suborder Anthropoidea-infraorder Platyrrhini)
- gibbons (suborder Anthropoidea-infraorder Catarrhini superfamily Hominoidea family Hylobaditae)
marmosets and tamarins young rearing features...
- males care for pairs of twins
- polyandrous groups
A form of social organisation found in primates in which a female has multiple mates.
A social unit consisting of a single male associated with several females...
A subunit of a larger social group consisting of a male associated with two of more females.
baboons, howler monkeys, galendas, and langurs form these two types of social groups...
A social unit consisting of many adult males and females.
Constantly changing form of social organization whereby large groupsundergo fission into smaller units and small units fuse into larger units in response to the activity of the group and the season of the year.
A study conducted ina natural habitat of an animal with minimal interfearence in the animal's life.
baboons, macaques, Old world monkeys, colobus monkeys, and some New world monkeys exemplify this kins of social grouping...
behavior of males in multimale groups...
- migrate to neighboring groups at puberty
- form close bonds
social grouping typical of chimpanzees...
two disadvantages of field study...
- takes a long time
- relatively low data yield
Group free-ranging primates that have become accostomed to humans because of the establishment of feeding stations.
advantages of provisioned colony research...3
- census data at the feeding station
- indreased tolerance of observers
- higher yield of data
In primates, the activity of going through the furwith hand or teeth to remove insects, dirt, twigs, dead skin, ans so on, also acts as a dysplay of affection.
Grooming another animal
Energetic, receptive activity engaged in primarily by infants and juveniles
a group of juviniles within a larger social unit that engages in play behavior
A physical activity that serves to threaten another animal. Some threat gestures are staring, shaking a branch, and lunging towward the other animal.
gibbon male-female pair grooming behavior...2
- several times a day
- until 2-2.5y
- weaned in a few months
- little attention from adults
- clings tightly to mom's fur