1. Natural Selection
    a process in which organisms with certain inhertied characteristics are more likely to survive and reproduce than are organisms with other characteristics differential reproductive success
  2. Population
    A group of intracting individualsbelonging to one species and living in the same geographic area at the same time.
  3. evolution
    descent with modifications; genetic change in a population or species over generations; the heritable changes that heritable changes that have produced earths diversity of organisms.
  4. mammal
    any vertebrate of the class Mammalia, having the body more orless covered with hair, nourishing the young with milk from themammary glands, and, with the exception of the egg-layingmonotremes, giving birth to live young.
  5. Directional Selection
    natural selection that acts in favor of the individual at one end of the phenotypic range
  6. Disruptive selection
    natural selection that favors extreme ove intermediate phenotpyes
  7. Stabilizing selection
    A type of natural selection in which genetic diversity decreases as the population stabilizes on a particular trait value.
  8. genetic drift
    random changes in the frequency of alleles in a gene pool, usuallyof small populations.
  9. gene flow
    the alteration of the frequencies of alleles of particular genes in apopulation, resulting from interbreeding with organisms fromanother population having different frequencies.
  10. fitness
    the ability of a population to maintain or increase itsnumbers in succeeding generations.
  11. species
    a class of individuals having some common characteristics orqualities; distinct sort or kind.
  12. carbon-14 dating
  13. pangaea
    the hypothetical landmass that existed when all continents werejoined, from about 300 to 200 million years ago.
  14. convergent evolution
    adaptive change resulting in nonhomologous similarites among organisms species from different evolutionary lineages come to resemble each other as a result of living in very similar enviroments
  15. abiotic
    air water light minerals and temperature
  16. ribozyme
    an enzymatic rna molecule that catalyzes chemical reactions
  17. cocci
    a spherical prokaryotic cell
  18. streptococci
  19. staphylococci
  20. bacilli
    a rod shaped prokaryotic cell
  21. nuclear fission
    thesplitting of an atomic nucleus into approximately equal parts,either spontaneously or as a result of the impact of a particleusually with an associated release of energy
  22. exotoxin
    a poisionious protein secreted by certain bacteria
  23. endotoxin
    aposionious componant of the outer membrane of certain bacteria
  24. bioremediation
    the use of living thing orangisms to detoxify and restore polluted and degraded ecosystems
  25. symbiosis
    the interaction between organisms of different species the symbiont lives in or on another species the host.
  26. endosymbiosis
    a type of symbiosis in which one organism lives inside the other,the two typically behaving as a single organism.
  27. mycorrhizae
    a muturally beneficial symbiotic association of a plant root and fungus
  28. gametophyte
    Compare sporophyte the plant body, in species showingalternation of generations, that produces the gametes
  29. cuticle
    in animals a tough no living outer layer of the skin in plants a waxy coatting on the surface of stems and leaves that help retain water
  30. sporophyte
    Compare gametophyte the diploid form of plants that havealternation of generations. It develops from a zygote andproduces asexual spores
  31. pollen
    the fertilizing element of flowering plants, consisting of fine,powdery, yellowish grains or spores, sometimes in masses
  32. endosperm
    the tissue within the seed of a flowering plant that surrounds andnourishes the developing embryo
  33. hyphae
    one of many filaments making up the body of a fungus
  34. mycelium
    the densely branched network of hyphae in a fungus
  35. blastula
    an embryonic stage that marks the end of cleavage during animal development a hollow ball of cells in many species
  36. gastrula
    the embryonic stage resulting from gastrulation in animal development most animals have gastrula made up of 3 layers, ectoderm endoderm mesoderm
  37. larva
    a free living sexually immature form in some animal life cycles that may differ from the adult in morphology nutrition and habitat
  38. metamorphosis
    the transformation of a larva into an adult
  39. choanocyte
  40. amoebocyte
    any cell having properties similar to an amoeba, such as shape,mobility, and ability to engulf particles
  41. cnidocyte
  42. exoskeleton
    external skeleton that protects an aminal and provides points of attachment for muscles
  43. endoskeleton
    interior skeleton located within soft tissues of an animal found in all veterbrates and a few inveterbrates
  44. notochord
    A flexible rodlike structure that forms the main support of the bodyin all chordates during some stage of their development. Invertebrates, the notochord develops into a true backbone in theembryonic phase. Primitive chordates, such as lancelets andtunicates, retain a notochord throughout their lives.
  45. operculum
    a protective flap on each side of a bony fish 's head that covers a chamber housing the gills
  46. amniotic egg
    a shelled egg in which a embryo develops within a fluid filled amniotic sac and is nourished by yolk
  47. culture
    the accumulated knowledge customs beliefs arts and other human products that are socially transmitted over the generations
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